

ORIGINAL ARTICLE 

Year : 2012  Volume
: 4
 Issue : 1  Page : 3437 


Estimation of stature from maxillofacial anthropometry in a central Indian population
Kanchankumar P Wankhede^{1}, Namdeo Y Kamdi^{1}, Madhukar P Parchand^{2}, Vaibhav P Anjankar^{3}, Rajesh V Bardale^{4}
^{1} Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Nagpur, India ^{2} Dean, Government Medical College, Miraj, India ^{3} Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Nanded, India ^{4} Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Government Medical College, Miraj, India
Date of Web Publication  28Jul2012 
Correspondence Address: Kanchankumar P Wankhede Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra  440003 India
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None  Check 
DOI: 10.4103/09751475.99161
Abstract   
Background: For establishing identity, stature is an important parameter in medicolegal and forensic examination. Aims: To estimate stature from facial parameters. Setting and Design : Prospective study conducted from December 2007 to September 2008 in the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Nagpur. Materials and Methods: A total of 470 healthy medical students were taken, comprising 260 males and 210 females in the age group of 18 to 24 years. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using regression analysis and correlation coefficient. Results: The average height of males and females was 170.97 (± 6.80) cm and 156.89 (± 5.89) cm respectively. It was observed that in males the total facial height had greater correlation with stature (r = 0.19) and had standard error of ±6.68 cm. In females, nasal height had greater correlation with stature (r = 0.19) and had standard error of ±5.78 cm . Conclusion: It can be stated that percutaneous facial dimensions are not good predictors of accurate stature estimation and can be used when other parameters are not available Keywords: Facial height, forensic, identification, nasal height, stature
How to cite this article: Wankhede KP, Kamdi NY, Parchand MP, Anjankar VP, Bardale RV. Estimation of stature from maxillofacial anthropometry in a central Indian population. J Forensic Dent Sci 2012;4:347 
How to cite this URL: Wankhede KP, Kamdi NY, Parchand MP, Anjankar VP, Bardale RV. Estimation of stature from maxillofacial anthropometry in a central Indian population. J Forensic Dent Sci [serial online] 2012 [cited 2019 Aug 23];4:347. Available from: http://www.jfds.org/text.asp?2012/4/1/34/99161 
Introduction   
It may happen that highly decomposed or mutilated bodies or fragmentary remains are presented for medicolegal examination. Sometimes only skull or facial remains are brought for examination. It is common in our region where deceased are attacked by wild animals in deep forests and it causes difficulty in identification. Under such circumstances it is important to establish the identity of the deceased. For establishing the identity, stature is an important parameter.
There is definitive biological correlation of stature with body parts such as extremities, head, trunk and vertebral column. ^{[1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11]}
Many studies have been conducted for estimation of stature from percutaneous measurements of various body parts such as arm, leg, feet, finger, etc. ^{[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21]} However, few studies are available for stature estimation from face alone. ^{[22],[23],[24],[25]}
It is an established fact that each race requires its own finding for stature estimation because of ethnic, dietary and climatic variations. Hence results of studies done in one population cannot be applicable to other populations entirely. ^{[26]} Therefore there is a need for systematic study from this region. Considering this fact, the present study was undertaken to estimate stature from maxillofacial anthropometry in this region.
Materials and Methods   
This was a prospective study conducted from December 2007 to September 2008 in the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Nagpur. The study was approved by the institutional ethical committee. A total of 470 healthy medical students were taken, comprising 260 males and 210 females in the age group of 18 to 24 years. After 18 years of age the stature is accepted as adult one and multiplication factor more or less remains constant above this age. ^{[27]} Students with any obvious congenital or acquired deformity of spine extremity or head were excluded from the study. A prescribed proforma was designed for recording the findings. Measurements were recorded to the nearest millimeter without ruling out soft tissue thickness. The following parameters were recorded:
Stature  The stature was measured in standing position to the vertex in Frankfurt plane by using anthropometric rod.
Total facial height (TFH)  The straight distance between Nasion and Gnathion is measured with closed mouth. It is measured by using sliding caliper. Nasion is the point at which a horizontal tangential to the highest point on the superior palpebral sulci intersects the midsagital plane. The subject should be looking straight ahead. Gnathion is the lowest median point on the lower border of the mandible [Figure 1].
Nasal height (NH)  The straight distance between the Nasion and the Nasospinale is measured. It is measured by using sliding caliper. Nasospinale is the point at which a line drawn between the lower margins of the right and left nasal apertures intersects the midsagittal plane [Figure 2].
All the above measurements were taken by one author at a fixed time between 2 to 5 pm only, to eliminate the discrepancies due to diurnal variation. The measurements were taken three times and their mean value was taken as a final measurement. The data were analyzed using regression analysis and correlation coefficient.
Results   
The study consists of 470 healthy subjects consisting of 260 males and 210 females. The agerelated data is presented in [Table 1]. The descriptive statistics for the three measurements recorded in the sample are shown in [Table 2]. In the sample, the average height of the males and females was 170.97 (± 6.80) cm and 156.89 (± 5.89) cm respectively. The results show that the differences between all male and female variables exhibited statistically significant differences (P < 0.001). The regression equations were derived and are shown in [Table 3]. There is separate equation for each facial parameter. The regression equations have been calculated by regression analysis of the data and the values of constants 'a' and 'b' are calculated; where 'a' is the regression coefficient of the stature and 'b' is the regression coefficient of any of the facial dimensions. Therefore stature = a + bx, where x is any facial parameter. It is observed that in males TFH had greater correlation with stature (r = 0.19) and had standard error of ±6.68 cm. In females, NH had greater correlation with stature (r = 0.19) and had standard error of ±5.78 cm.  Table 2: Descriptive statistics for sexwise height and facial parameters (in cm)
Click here to view 
Discussion   
Estimation of stature for the purpose of identification has a significant forensic importance. This technique is based on a principle that bones or human body parts correlate positively with the stature. Whenever someone wants to estimate stature from a given bone or human body part, there must be a known relationship of that bone or human body part with the stature. ^{[21]} A medical examiner never knows what sort of exhibit may be presented to him or her by the Investigating Officer for forensic examination. Therefore new methods based on sound principles are needed to be devised to meet such requirements. Thus there is a need to investigate whether any possible significant correlation exists between stature and facial dimensions? Considering this fact, an attempt had been made in the present study to estimate stature from facial parameters and for this purpose we employed TFH and NH.
While reviewing the literature, we found that few studies have been conducted so far and the comparative data is presented in [Table 4]. ^{[22],[23],[24],[25]} Jiobonkumar et al., (2006) had studied 199 male Kabui people of Imphal valley, and they noted that TFH was a better parameter to estimate stature. ^{[22]} Similar findings were noted by Krishnan (2008), Kharyal et al., (2008) and Agnihotri et al., (2011). ^{[23],[24],[25]} In the present study we have noted that THF (r = 0.19, SEE = ± 6.68) is a better parameter in males than NH (r = 0.18, SEE = ± 6.69) whereas NH (r = 0.19, SEE = ± 5.78) is a better parameter than TFH (r = 0.02, SEE = ± 5.84) in females for estimation of stature. This difference could be attributed to geographic, climatic or ethnic variation.
Stature can be estimated, either by multiplying the parameter with the derived multiplication factor or can be measured by employing regression equation. Now most of the researchers considered that regression analysis is best for stature estimation. ^{[23],[28]} Statistically speaking, correlation coefficient is considered significant if it is above 0.5. ^{[25]} While analyzing the present study, we have noted that TFH and NH have lower value in both sexes. Therefore these are not preferable parameters but can be utilized in the absence of other better parameters such as long bones or when only facial remains are presented for forensic examination.
The method of using TFH and NH has several advantages as the method is easy, the anatomical landmarks are standard, welldefined and easy to locate and required least instrumentation. The disadvantage is that the parameters may have insignificant correlation in comparison with bare bone measurements since the study is conducted with intact soft tissues covering the face. However, such a study assumes significance when the body is mutilated into multiple parts or only isolated facial structure is presented for forensic examination.
Conclusion   
From the present study it can be concluded that stature can be estimated from various facial dimensions similar to stature estimation from other parts of the human body. However, the correlation is not strong enough to use it as a primary method. Based on the results it can be stated that percutaneous facial dimensions are not good predictors of accurate stature estimation.
References   
1.  Wells LH. Estimation of stature from long bones: A reassessment. J Forensic Med 1959; 6:1717. 
2.  Trotter M, Gleser G. estimation of stature from long bones of American whites and Negroes. Am J Phys Anthropol 1952; 9:463514. 
3.  Dupertuis CW, Hadden JA. On the reconstruction of stature from long bones. Am J Phys Anthropol 1951;9:1523. 
4.  Chiba M, Terazawa K. Estimation of stature from somatometry of skull. Forensic Sci Int 1998;97:8792. [PUBMED] 
5.  Sarangi SK, Dadhi B, Mishra KK. Estimation of stature from somatometry of skull. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 1981;182:246. 
6.  Ryan I, Bidmos MA. Skeletal height reconstruction from measurements of the skull and indigenous South Africans. Forensic Sci Int 2007;167:1621. [PUBMED] 
7.  Hayperuma I. On the prediction of stature from cranial dimensions. Int J Morphol 2010;28:113540. 
8.  Patil KR, Mody RN. Determination of Sex by discriminant function analysis and stature by regression analysis: A lateral cephalometry study. Forensic Sci Int 2005;147:17580. [PUBMED] 
9.  Tibbets GL. Estimation of stature from vertebral column in American Blacks. J Forensic Sci 1981;26:71523. 
10.  Jason DR, Taylor K. Estimation of stature from cervical, thoracic, and lumber segments of the spine in American Whites and Blacks. J Forensic Sci 1995;40:5962. [PUBMED] 
11.  Nagesh KR, Pradeep Kumar G. Estimation of stature from vertebral column length in south Indians. Leg Med (Tokyo) 2006;8:27983. [PUBMED] 
12.  Ozaslan A, Iscan MY, Ozaslan I, Tugch H, Koc S. Estimation of stature from body parts. Forensic Sci Int 2003;132:405. 
13.  Ozaslan A, Koc S, Ozaslam I, Tugcu H. Estimation of stature from upper extremity. Mil Med 2006;171:28891. 
14.  Patel MP, Joshi NB. Regression equation of height on ulnar length. Indian J Med Res 1964;52:108891. 
15.  Patel MP, Joshi NB, Dongre AV. Regression equation of height on tibial length. Indian J Med Res 1964;52:5314. 
16.  Giles E, Vallandigm PH. Height estimation from foot and shoe print length. J Forensic Sci 1991;36:114351. 
17.  Kishan K. Estimation of stature from foot print and foot outline dimensions in Gujjars of North India. Forensic Sci Int 2008;175:93101. 
18.  Bhatnagar DP, Thapar SP, Batish MK.Identification of personal height from the somatometry of the hand in Punjabi males. Forensic Sci Int 1984;24:13741. [PUBMED] 
19.  Rastogi P, Kanchan T, Menezes R, Yoganarasimha K. Middle finger length  a predictor of stature in the Indian population. Med Sci Law 2009;49:1236. 
20.  Jadhav HR, Shah GV. Determination of personal height from the length of head in Gujarat region. J Anat Soc India 2004;53:201. 
21.  Kalia S, Shetty SK, Karthikrya P, Mahima VG. Stature estimation using odontometry and skull anthropometry. Indian J Dental Res 2008;19:1504. 
22.  Jibonkumar, Lilinchandra. Estimation of stature using different facial measurements among Kabui Naga of Imphalvally, Manipur. Anthropologist 2006;8:13. 
23.  Krishan K. Estimation of stature from cephalofacial anthropometry in north Indian population. Forensic Sci Int 2008;181:526. [PUBMED] 
24.  Kharyal A, Nath S. Estimation of stature from maxillofacial height measurements among Brahmins of Himachal Pradesh. Indian J Foresic Odont 2008;1:912. 
25.  Agnihotri AK, Kachhwaha S, Googoolye K, Allock A. Estimation of stature from cephalofacial dimensionsby regression analysis in IndoMauritian population. J Forensic Leg Med 2011;18:16772. [PUBMED] 
26.  Siddiqui MA, Shah MA. Estimation of stature from long bones of Punjabis. Indian J Med Res 1944;32:1048. 
27.  Roche AF, Davila GH. Late adolescent growth in stature. Pediatrics 1992;50:87480. 
28.  Iscan MY. Forensic anthropology of sex and body size. Forensic Sci Int 2005;147:10712. 
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]
