Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
IAFO CONFERENCE 2018 GOA - http://iafo2018goa.com/ Users Online: 404 
Home Print this page  Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Wide layoutNarrow layoutFull screen layout
  Home | About JFDS | Editorial Board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Online submission | Contact us | Advertise | Login 


 
  Table of Contents  
CASE REPORT
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 60-63  

Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode


Department of Prosthodontics, HKE'S S Nijlingappa Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication5-Jul-2013

Correspondence Address:
Sudhindra Mahoorkar
Department of Prosthodontics, HKE'S S Nijlingappa Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Ring Road, Gulbarga, Karnataka - 585 105
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0975-1475.114545

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature for personal identification. They have been broadly divided into surface marking and inclusion methods. In this technique, patient's unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient's Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) are used as denture markers. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual.

Keywords:  Bar code denture identification marking, denture label, denture marking system, human identification


How to cite this article:
Mahoorkar S, Jain A. Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode. J Forensic Dent Sci 2013;5:60-3

How to cite this URL:
Mahoorkar S, Jain A. Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode. J Forensic Dent Sci [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Sep 18];5:60-3. Available from: http://www.jfds.org/text.asp?2013/5/1/60/114545


   Introduction Top


Denture identification systems are important for hospitalized patients, patients in long-term care facilities, old-age homes, for forensic identification purposes, and other social reasons. [1],[2],[3] After major disasters such as earthquakes, fires, or floods, accurate and early identification of the dead and injured becomes of utmost importance. At times, the only identifiable remains are a victim's partial or complete dentures. [4]

Our aging society, with the resultant growth in nursing home and hospital populations has increased the need for the easy identification of the prosthetic devices to be permanently labeled. [4] Denture labeling is becoming more important each day as air travel and tourism are increasing.

Regulatory bodies have recommended that all the prosthesis to be marked with an identification system; therefore, several techniques have been used in private and commercial laboratories to identify dentures. [1] The importance of denture identification was brought into focus by Dr. Robert H. Griffiths during his tenure as a President of American Dental Association. [5] Over the years, various methods of denture marking have been reported in the literature. [1],[3],[4],[6],[7],[8],[9] These include surface marking and inclusion techniques using metal or non-metal materials, microlabels, and electronic chips. The majority of these techniques may be time-consuming, may not be esthetic, and do not permit the incorporation of a large amount of information. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual.


   Technique Top


  1. Post fabrication of the denture, scan the patient's unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient's Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI). So there is no need to collect the patient's information and store it in the denture-embedded electronic storing device because the unique identification number and barcode carry information about the patient which is collected and centrally maintained by UIDAI a government regulatory body, so the accuracy of the data is trustworthy and also accessible from a remote location.
  2. Minimize, print, and cut the unique identity number and barcode sheet in appropriate size.
  3. Stick the sellotape on the front and back side of the printed paper which contains the unique identity number and barcode. By doing this, the printer toner is placed away from the monomer of denture base resin. Thus, the deterioration of legibility is reduced. Now the unique identification label is ready for denture identification technique.
  4. In this technique, a slot of 1 mm deep is prepared on the finished surface of denture base, which was slightly wider than the size of the label. One drop of cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevi Kwik, Pidilite Industries Ltd, Mumbai, India) is placed in slot to properly position the label.
  5. Clear autopolymerizing acrylic resin (Dental Products of India, Mumbai, India) is mixed and placed in small amount over the label The acrylic resin was trimmed and finished in the usual manner [Figure 1] and [Figure 2].
    Figure 1: Unique barcode and number label placed within the maxillary denture

    Click here to view
    Figure 2: Unique barcode and number label placed within mandibular denture

    Click here to view
  6. The denture is then inserted in the patient's mouth [Figure 3] and [Figure 4].
    Figure 3: Intraoral photograph of maxillary denture with unique barcode and number

    Click here to view
    Figure 4: Intraoral photograph of mandibular denture with unique barcode and number

    Click here to view

   Discussion Top


Denture marking is accepted as a means of identifying recovered bodies of those killed in natural disaster, accidents, and aviation disasters. It also helps in identifying an unconscious person as well as identifying misplaced dentures in geriatric institutions. [10],[11]

Denture marking is regulated by law only in Sweden and Iceland. In 1986, the "National Board of Health and Welfare" of Sweden, which is the supervising authority on the health sector in Sweden, legislated and made it mandatory for all dentists to comply with the following requirements: "The patient shall always be offered the opportunity to have his/her dentures marked with a personal number." In addition to the above, the dentist should always inform clearly and motivated the patient as to the benefits of the denture marking. [12],[13] In the USA, denture marking is mandatory in 21 states, whereas in New York state denture marking is performed only after request of the patient. Several states impose the obligation to mark dentures on long-term care facilities and denture marking is compulsory for the army.

Over the years, various methods of denture marking have been reported in the literature. [1],[3],[4],[6],[7],[8],[9] These include surface marking and inclusion techniques using metal or non-metal materials, microlabels, and electronic chips. Automatic identification using barcodes incorporated into dentures has been developed. [14] Barcode systems can contain large number of data.

The prepared label can be inserted into denture by pre-fabrication and post-fabrication techniques. In pre-fabrication technique, the label is inserted on the intaglio surface after trial closure of denture flasks. The intaglio surface is the area where least adjustment is done during denture insertion. The background of the label is clear and only the black markings of the label can be clearly seen even after relining of dentures, if required, at further appointments. [1]

In post-fabrication technique, the label is inserted in a prepared site, which is located in the flattest portion on the cameo surfaces of the lingual flange of the mandibular denture and/or palate of the maxillary denture. These sites do not interfere with esthetics of the denture. Generally, these sites are acceptable for the patient. These areas are also not removed during post-insertion adjustments or routine relining procedures. [4] Added advantage of this technique is that the identification label appears on the denture polished surface covered by a layer of clear acrylic resin thick enough to resist normal cleansing and even some surface loss if adjustment is required. [2]

But the majority of these techniques may be time-consuming, may not be esthetic, and do not permit the incorporation of a large amount of information. In this technique, patient's unique identification number and barcode are used for denture identification. The unique identification number and barcode carry information about the patient, which are collected and centrally maintained by UIDAI a government regulatory body so the accuracy of the data is trustworthy and also accessible from a remote location. Aadhaar is a 12-digital individual identification number issued by the UIDAI on behalf of the Government of India. Each Aadhaar number will be unique to an individual and remain valid for life. The technique described in the article is a quick and easy technique.

Stevenson's technique of rubbing lead pencil or ink pen over fine grooves to make them more evident is not a permanent method and may fade after subsequent use of denture. It would require frequent remarking, possibly every 3-4 weeks. Advantage of this method is that, it can be used for short-term hospitalized patients. [5] The technique described by Heath et al. is a temporary method and the denture has to be remarked and layers of sealant have to be reapplied on a regular basis which may depend on patient's use. [15] Fiske's technique showed that the legibility of written material deteriorates as a result of interaction between acrylic resin monomer and some inks. [16] The technique reported by Berry et al. (1995) for identification of prosthetic devices with an alternate procedure using Triad gel (Triad VLC system, Dentsply International, Inc, York, PA) is the best regarding polymerization shrinkage, but requires expensive investment of material and curing chamber which may be not possible in every clinic. [4]

One of the important criteria for any denture identification system is the protection of the label-ink or toner. It has to be protected from the monomer of the denture base resin, the high temperatures of denture processing, finishing and polishing of dentures, and wear of the dentures. [1] In the suggested technique, the toner is properly covered in two sheets of sellotape. Thus, the longevity of the denture label is obtained. The procedure is easy to use and very cost effective, as it uses equipment that is available in any institution or office.


   Summary and Conclusion Top


This article describes easy-to-use and very cost effective way of denture labeling. The equipments required are easily available in any institution, dental laboratory, or dental clinic. By this method, denture labeling could be done in existing prosthetic devices which were not labeled previously or it could be incorporated in newly constructed prosthesis. The procedure could be easily performed by dental auxiliary personnel, thereby reducing workload for the dentist.

Significance of bar coding

The prosthesis or any appliances such as spectacles, hearing aids, complete dentures or any prosthesis that offer space for barcoding them with individual's UIDAI would prove of valuable assistance in bio-identification of the individual.

 
   References Top

1.Ling BC. Computer-printer denture microlabeling system. J Prosthet Dent 1998;79:363-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.Lamb DJ. A simple method for permanent identification of dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1992;67:894.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.Coss P, Wolfaardt JF. Denture identification system. J Prosthet Dent 1995;74:551-2.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.Berry FA, Logan GI, Plata R, Riegel R. A postfabrication technique for identification of prosthetic devices. J Prosthet Dent 1995; 73:341-3.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.Stevenson RB. Marking dentures for identification. J Prosthet Dent 1987;58:255.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.Ryan LD, Keller JB, Rogers DE, Schaeffer L. Clear acrylic resin T-bar used in denture identification. J Prosthet Dent 1993;70:189-90.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.Reeson MG. A simple and inexpensive inclusion technique for denture identification. J Prosthet Dent 2001;86:441-2.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.Rajan M, Julian R. A new method of marking dentures using microchips. J Forensic Odontostomatol 2002;20:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]    
9.Matsumura H, Shimoe S. Incorporation of a cast, embossed identification plate into a partial denture framework. J Prosthet Dent 2002;88:215-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.Harvey W. Identity by teeth and the marking of dentures. Br Dent J 1966;121:334-40.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]    
11.MacEntee MI, Campbell T. Personal identification using dental prostheses. J Prosthet Dent 1979;41:377-80.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]    
12.Stenberg I, Borrman HI. Dental condition and identification marking of dentures in homes for the elderly in Göteborg, Sweden. J Forensic Odontostomatol 1998;16:35-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
[PUBMED]    
13.Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare SOSFS. M: The recommendations and general advices from the National Board of Health and Welfare regarding removable dentures. 1986;25.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Milward PJ, Shepherd P, Brickley MR. Automatic identification of dental appliances. Br Dent J 1997;182:171-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
[PUBMED]    
15.Heath JR, Zoitopoulos L, Griffiths C. Simple methods for denture identification: A clinical trial. J Oral Rehabil 1988;15:587-92.  Back to cited text no. 15
[PUBMED]    
16.Fiske J, Graham T, Gelbier S. Denture identification for elderly people. Br Dent J 1986;161:448-9.  Back to cited text no. 16
[PUBMED]    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]


This article has been cited by
1 Denture marker with titanium number plates
V. Ashok,Bharanija kalidasan Selvi,N.Gopi Chander
Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
   Technique
   Discussion
    Summary and Conc...
    References
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3110    
    Printed98    
    Emailed3    
    PDF Downloaded383    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal