Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Users Online: 35 
Home Print this page  Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Wide layoutNarrow layoutFull screen layout
  Home | About JFDS | Editorial Board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Online submission | Contact us | Advertise | Login 


 
  Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 122-125  

Rugae pattern in a sample of population of Meerut - An institutional study


1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Subharti Dental College, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kalka Dental College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication15-May-2014

Correspondence Address:
S. Bhagwath
Subharti Dental College, NH 58, Meerut 250 005, Uttar Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0975-1475.132542

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Context: Many studies on rugae pattern have been done on various samples of population, but no study has so far been done to assess the rugae pattern of population of western Uttar radesh, especially Meerut. Aims: This study was aimed to assess the rugae pattern in males and females of a sample of population of Meerut, which may be an additional method of determining gender when dealing with any crime or with mutilated bodies that have undergone damage beyond recognition. Settings and Design: A total of 100 Class I dentulous subjects, 50 male and 50 female patients reporting to the outpatient department of Kalka Dental College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh were randomly selected with an age range between 20-30 years. Exclusion criteria were subjects >14 years of age, congenital malformations, previous orthognathic surgery, allergy to impression material, bony and soft tissue protuberances, active lesions, deformity or scars and trauma of the palate. Prior approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee was taken. Subjects and Methods: Alginate impressions of palate of selected patients were poured in dental stone and rugae pattern was identified and analyzed by a single rater employing Thomas and Kotze's (1983) method. Statistical analysis used: Two-sample t-test and Chi-Square tests were used for comparison of means and relationship between the attributes. A significance level of 5% was considered as critical value. Results: No significant difference was noted in total number or length of rugae between the genders. However, statistically significant difference in the circular type in males and converge type in females was observed. Conclusion: Rugae pattern can be used as a method of differentiation between males and females to corroborate the findings of other methods such as anthropometric evaluation of the cranium and dental characteristics.

Keywords: Forensic identification, palatine rugae, rugae pattern, rugae, rugoscopy


How to cite this article:
Bhagwath S, Chandra L. Rugae pattern in a sample of population of Meerut - An institutional study. J Forensic Dent Sci 2014;6:122-5

How to cite this URL:
Bhagwath S, Chandra L. Rugae pattern in a sample of population of Meerut - An institutional study. J Forensic Dent Sci [serial online] 2014 [cited 2017 Mar 26];6:122-5. Available from: http://www.jfds.org/text.asp?2014/6/2/122/132542


   Introduction Top


Rugae are defined, according to Glossary of Prosthodontics Terms, [1] as anatomical folds or wrinkles; the irregular ridges of folds of fibrous connective tissue located on the anterior third of the palate behind the incisive papilla. Rugae patterns have been studied for various purposes primarily in the fields of comparative anatomy, anthropology, genetics, orthodontics and prosthodontics. [2],[3] In forensic medicine, the chief methods of identification are fingerprints, DNA comparison and dental characteristics. Many times, one or all of these methods may not be totally effective or conclusive in establishing identity [4] especially where human identification methods are compromised as in cases of severe burns, accidents etc., Many victims of serious crimes and those of aircraft accidents [5],[6] have been identified by their dentition. [7],[8] Here palatal rugoscopy can be used as a necro identification technique. [9] Rugae are protected from trauma by their internal position in the head and are insulated from heat by the tongue and the buccal pads of fat. [10] Studies have demonstrated that no two palates are alike in their configuration [11] and that the characteristic pattern of the palate does not change as a result of growth. [12] Even amongst the twins, studies have indicated that the patterns are similar but not identical. [13] Differences between genders using study of rugae pattern have been studied without any conclusions till now. [9] The aim of this article is to study the rugae pattern in a sample of male and female population of Meerut, and to compare the patterns between the two groups, which may be an additional method of determining gender.


   Subjects and Methods Top


Subjects for this study were randomly selected from the outpatient's department of Kalka Dental College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh. For the purpose of this study a total of 100 Class I dentulous subjects, 50 males and 50 females were selected after determining the sample size by performing power analysis in G*Power 3, a software package for power analyses. The ages of the subjects were between 20-30 years with a mean of 24 years. A prior approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee was taken. The exclusion criteria were subjects below the age of 14 years, congenital malformations, previous orthognathic surgery, allergy to impression material, bony and soft tissue protuberances, active lesions, deformity or scars and trauma of the palate. After obtaining informed consent, alginate impression of maxillary arch was made and the study models were prepared in dental stone for interpretation. The rugae were highlighted using a black permanent marker [Figure 1] and recorded by one rater according to the classification given by Thomas and Kotze [14] as it was found to be the most practical and easiest to apply compared with other methods such as those of Houser et al.,[15] and of Reuer. [16] Thomas and Kotze classification system includes number, length, shape and unification of rugae. The shapes are classified into curved, wavy, straight and circular [Figure 2]. Fragmented rugae are those which have length less than 5 mm. Straight types run directly from their origin to insertion [Figure 2]. The curved type has a simple crescent shape with a gentle curve [Figure 2]. Wavy rugae are serpentine in shape [Figure 2] and rugae that showed definite continuous ring formation were classified as circular [Figure 2]. Additionally, non-specific rugae pattern was observed, which did not fall in any of the mentioned classes. Unification is divided into converge when two rugae originate away from the center and unite towards it [Figure 2] whereas diverge ones are those rugae which originate from the center and diverge away from it [Figure 2]. All the identification and measurements were done by one examiner and the readings were repeated three times for each cast. A percent agreement of 87% was obtained during the recording of readings. In this study, the fragmented type of rugae of a size less than 5mm was ignored, when the mean value of the total number of rugae was calculated. The fragmented types were studied separately for a comparative study purpose between males and females.
Figure 1: Sketch depicting classification of palatal rugae based on Thomas and Kotze's system

Click here to view
Figure 2: Cast shwoing the tracing of pattern of palatine rugae

Click here to view


Two-sample t-test and Chi-Square tests were used for comparison of means and relationship between the attributes. A significance level of 5% was considered as critical value.


   Results Top


The total number of rugae and the mean value for males and females is illustrated in [Table 1]. The distribution of different types of rugae in males and females were statistically analyzed and illustrated in [Table 2]. There was a statistically significant difference in the converge pattern of rugae which was found to be higher among females than males (P < 0.05). There was also a statistically significant difference in the circular pattern of rugae which was higher in males than females (P < 0.05). Distribution of the length of rugae was noted and statistically analyzed [Table 3] and [Table 4]. The Chi-square and t-tests showed no significant difference between the genders.
Table 1: Mean and standard deviation of total number of rugae in males and females


Click here to view
Table 2: Statistical analysis of % of different types of rugae in males and femals


Click here to view
Table 3: Distribution of the length of rugae in males and females


Click here to view
Table 4: Comparison of difference in the length of rugae (mm) between males and females


Click here to view



   Discussion Top


Palatoscopy or palatal rugoscopy has its origin in 1932, and its discovery is credited to Troban Hermaso, a Spanish investigator. [17] Palatal rugoscopy is the study of palatal rugae in order to establish a person's identity. [2],[18] The anatomical position of the rugae in the mouth remains unchanged in its position throughout life, withstands disease, chemical aggression and trauma. It is stable and resists decomposition for up to seven days after death. [19],[20]

Rugoscopy is an auxiliary method to identify humans used when other identification methods commonly used are unviable, like in the case of carbonized bodies. [20] In such instances, palatal rugae are the more preferred means of identification because of their low cost of utilization, ease of use, and reliability of method. They are sufficiently characteristic to discriminate between individuals because no two palates are alike in their configuration. This finding has been substantiated by results obtained in similar studies conducted earlier. [9],[10],[11],[19],[25]

In the field of forensic odontology, rugoscopy is still in its infancy. A consensus of opinion is emerging that the rugae remain fairly stable in number and morphology. [20],[21] Its design and structure are unchanged and are not altered by chemicals, heat, disease or trauma, or, if palatal rugae are destroyed, are reproduced exactly on the same site that had these rugae. [3],[15],[20] Many studies have been carried out on the rugae patterns in black, Caucasian and mixed populations in South Africa, [22] Japan [23],[24] Saudi Arabia [25] and parts of India. [17],[26] Differences between genders using study of rugae pattern have been studied without any conclusions. [9],[22] Differences in the shape of the palatal rugae in different races and population have been investigated but no significant sex differences were observed in those studies either. [22],[26] However, no study has so far been done to assess the gender differences in the shape of palatal rugae especially among the western Uttar Pradesh population, more specifically in Meerut. Our study did not show any significant difference in the number of rugae between the males and females. Results from our study mostly conform to the results presented by Dohke and Osato [24] as well as Faisal M Fahmi et al.,[25] who indicated that among the Japanese as well as the Saudis, females had fewer rugae than males. A significant difference was found in two shapes of rugae in our study. Primarily, the converge pattern of rugae was found to be higher in females than males. This difference was found to be statistically significant. The other finding was that the circular pattern of rugae was found to be statistically higher in males than in females. These two differences could be employed as factors for identification along with other methods of identification.

In the light of these results, we strongly suggest that palatal rugae pattern can be used in forensic science as an auxiliary method for estimating gender. However, a more detailed study involving a larger sample size is needed in order to substantiate these findings. In addition, examining the rugae patterns in other population samples in India may further corroborate our findings.


   Conclusion Top


The present study attempted to compare the rugae pattern between males and females in a sample of population of Meerut. No significant difference was noted in total number of rugae between males and females. However, statistically significant differences were found in the two patterns of rugae; the converge type was found to be higher in females and the circular type was found to be higher in males. The rugae pattern can thus be utilized as a useful additional method for estimating gender. However, further research with larger sample sizes may be needed to substantiate these findings.

 
   References Top

1.The Academy of Prosthodontics. The Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 200594 (1):70.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Lysell L. Plicae palatinae transverse and papilla incisiva in man: A morphologic and genetic study. Acta Odontol Scand 1955;13:5-137.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.Almeida MA, Phillips C, Kula K, Tulloch C. Stability of the palatal rugae as landmarks for analysis of dental casts. Angle Orthod 1995;65:43-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Morlange WM. Forensic dentistry. Aviat Space Environ Med 1982;53:27-34.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Barsely RE, Carr RF, Cottone JA, Cuminale JA. Identification via dental remains: Pan American flight 759. J Forensic Sci 1985;30:128-36.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Solheim T, van den Bos A. International disaster identification Report. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1982;3:63-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.Gillespie TH, Brannon RB, Gardner FW, Grason JD. Dental identification of remains from23 October 1983, Bombing U.S. Marine Headquarters, Beirut, Lebanon. Mil Med 1985;150:635-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Bostian RF. Dental identification of the Victorian bushfire victims. Aust Dent J 1984;29:343-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Caldas IM, Magalhães T, Afonso A. Establishing identity using cheiloscopy and palatoscopy. Forensic Sci Int 2007;165:1-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Ohtani M, Nishida N, Chiba T, Fukuda M, Miyamoto Y, Yoshioka N. Indication and limitations of using palatal rugae for personal identification in edentulous cases. Forensic Sci Int 2008;176:178-82.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Limson KS, Julian R. Computerized recording of the palatal rugae pattern and an evaluation of its application in forensic identification. J Forensic Odontostomatol 2004;22:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Lebret L. Growth changes of the palate. J Dent Res 1962;41:1391-404.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Ritter R. Uber die form den verlauf und die. Typeneinteilung der Gaumenleisten. Zeitschrift Fur Morphol Anthropol (About the shape and the running. Type classification of palatal bars. For magazine Morphol Anthropol) 1943;40:367.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Thomas CF, Kotze TF. The palatal rugae pattern: A new classification. J Dent Assoc S Afr 1983;38:153-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Houser A, Daponte A, Roberts TS. Palatal rugae. J Anat 1989;165:237-49.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Reuer E. Gaumentleistein und Gaumerferm bei drei lokalen populationen in Osterreich. Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien (Gaumentleistein and Gaumerferm at three local populations in Austria. Releases the Anthropological Society in Vienna) 1973;103:1-3.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Paliwal A, Wanjari S, Parwani R. Palatal rugoscopy: Establishing identity. J Forensic Dent Sci 2010;2:27-31.  Back to cited text no. 17
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
18.Sassouni V. Palatal-print, physoprint and roentoenographic cephalometry as new method in human identification (Preliminary report). J Forensic Sci 1957;2:420-42.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Abou El-Fotouh MM, El-Sharkawy GZ. A study of palatal rugae pattern (rugoscopy) in an Egyptian population. Official J Egypt Dent Assoc 1998;44:3177.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Hermosilla VV, San Pedro VJ, Cantín LM, Suazo GI. Palatal rugae: Systematic analysis of its shape and dimensions for use in human identification. Int J Morphol 2009;27:819-25.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Patil MS, Patil BS, Acharya AB. Palatine rugae and their significance in clinical dentistry: A review of the literature. J Am Dent Assoc 2008;139:1471-8.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Thomas CJ, Kotze TF. The palatal rugae pattern in Southern African human populations. Part I. A description of the populations and a method for its investigation. J Dent Assoc South Afr 1983;38:547-53.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Manihara K, Masuda T, Tanaka T. Affinities of dental characersitics in the Okinawa Islanders. J Anthropol Soc Nippon 1973;82:75-81.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.Dohke M, Osato S. Morphological study of the palatal rugae in Japanese 1. Bilateral differences in the regressive evaluation of the palatal rugae. Jap J Oral Biol 1994;36:125-40.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.Fahmi FM, Al-Shamrani SM, Talic YF. Rugae pattern in a Saudi population sample of males and females. Saudi Dent J 2001;13:92-5.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.Nayak P, Acharya AB, Padmini AT, Kaveri H. Differences in the palatal rugae shape in two populations of India. Arch Oral Biol 2007;52:977-82.  Back to cited text no. 26
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
   Subjects and Methods
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed760    
    Printed39    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded205    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal