Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Users Online: 847 
Home Print this page  Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Wide layoutNarrow layoutFull screen layout
  Home | About JFDS | Editorial Board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Online submission | Contact us | Advertise | Login 


 
  Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 67-70  

A study of lip print patterns among adults of Sebha city, Libya


1 Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology; Faculty of Dentistry, Sebha University, Sebha, Libya
2 Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, India
3 Faculty of Dentistry; Department of Oral Biology and Orthodontics, Sebha University, Sebha, Libya
4 Faculty of Dentistry, Sebha University, Sebha, Libya
5 Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, K. S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication30-Jan-2015

Correspondence Address:
Syed Wali Peeran
Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, Faculty of Dentistry, Sebha University, Sebha
Libya
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0975-1475.150322

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Introduction: Lip print patterns are individualistic and unique and can be used for identification of individuals. Objectives: The objective of this study was to find out the different types of lip patterns, know the most common one and to know whether it has any gender predilection among adults of Sebha city. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 adults aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Lip prints were recorded and analyzed for lip print patterns. Statistical analysis was carried out using the computer software Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) 17.0 (Chicago, Illinos, USA). Results: Type I lip print pattern was seen in 53.37% and 60.07% of lip quadrants in males and females, respectively. 27 (25.96%) subjects had same lip print pattern in all the four quadrants. Conclusion: Suzuki and Tsuchihashi's Type I lip print pattern was most common type of lip print pattern in the studied population, whereas Type I' was found to be the least common.

Keywords: Cheiloscopy, forensic odontology, individual identification, sex determination


How to cite this article:
Peeran SW, Naveen Kumar P G, Abdalla KA, Azaruk FA, Manipady S, Alsaid FM. A study of lip print patterns among adults of Sebha city, Libya. J Forensic Dent Sci 2015;7:67-70

How to cite this URL:
Peeran SW, Naveen Kumar P G, Abdalla KA, Azaruk FA, Manipady S, Alsaid FM. A study of lip print patterns among adults of Sebha city, Libya. J Forensic Dent Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Dec 7];7:67-70. Available from: http://www.jfds.org/text.asp?2015/7/1/67/150322


   Introduction Top


Lips contain in them various characteristic patterns of grooves, furrows, wrinkles and lines, the combination of which is individualistic and unique like finger prints. [1] The study of this lip print patterns is called as cheiloscopy. The presence of such biological phenomenon of furrows on the red part of lips was described as early as 1902 by Fischer, an anthropologist as referred by Sivapathasundharam [2] Lip prints are relatively new forensic odontology tools in identifying individuals. A number of classifications have been proposed by various researchers to classify the lip print patterns, the most commonly used among them being the Santos, [3] Suzuki and Tsuchihashi [4] and Renaud's classification. [5] The present work is the first known consolidated attempt to carry out a cheiloscopic study in the Libyan population. The present study aimed to find the different types of lip patterns, to find out the quadrant wise and gender wise predilection of lip print patterns and to know the most common lip print pattern, in the adults of Sebha city, Libya.


   Materials and Methods Top


The study was conducted among 104 adults; the sample consisted of 37 males and 67 females. The subjects were aged between 18 and 35 years and were from the native population of Sebha city, Libya. Ethical clearance was obtained from the scientific committee, Faculty of Dentistry, Sebha University, Sebha, Libya. The study was conducted in a period of 3 months from December 2012 to February 2013. The adult subjects, willing to participate in the study, providing informed consent were included in the study. Subjects with gross deformities in lips, those having known allergy for lipstick materials and those having active lesions on their lips, were excluded from the study. Each individual was allowed to select any dark colored lipstick of their choice. They were asked to clean their lips and then apply the lipstick on their lips and then to rub their lips to spread the lipstick uniformly. The lip prints were then taken on a clean white paper, which was supported with a card board. Care was taken to avoid smudging of the prints.

The recorded lip prints were then studied using the magnifying lens. The lips were divided into four quadrants (upper left, upper right, lower right and lower left) and the prints were analyzed according to Suzuki and Tsuchihashi, [4] classification, which is as follows:

  • Type I: Vertical, complete (end-to-end) longitudinal fissures
  • Type I': Incomplete vertical fissures
  • Type II: Branching, Y shaped pattern
  • Type III: Criss-cross patterns
  • Type IV: Reticular, typical chequered pattern, fence-like.


All data was entered using Microsoft excel and analyzed statistically using Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) (SPSS, version 17.0) (Chicago, Illinos, USA). Chi-square test was performed to test the significance of gender-wise difference in different quadrants. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.


   Results Top


The present study was conducted to access the quadrant wise and gender-wise predilection of the lip print patterns and to know the most common lip pattern among adults in Sebha city, Libya.

[Table 1] shows the distribution of various types of lip patterns in the four quadrants of the subjects in the study. This table shows overall results of the present study.
Table 1: Distribution of lip print patterns


Click here to view


[Table 2] is the simplified version of [Table 1], it shows that 53.37% of quadrants in males and 60.07% of quadrants in females had Type I lip pattern. 7.43% of quadrants in males and 6.71% of quadrants in female had Type I' lip pattern. 20.94% of quadrants in males and 16.04% of quadrants in females had Type II lip pattern. 9.45% of quadrants in males and 9.32% of quadrants in females had Type III lip pattern. 8.78% of quadrants in males and 7.83% of quadrants in females had Type IV lip pattern. Overall 57.7% of quadrants had Type I. 6.97% of quadrants had Type I'. 17.78% of quadrants had Type II pattern. 9.37% of quadrants had Type III pattern. 8.17% of quadrants had Type IV pattern. These results show that Type I pattern was the most common type of lip pattern followed by Type II, Type III and Type IV lip pattern, the least common was Type I' when overall quadrants were considered and the same was observed among males and females also.
Table 2: Gender wise distribution of lip print patterns


Click here to view


Graph 1 shows the distribution of the subjects by gender-wise and lip print pattern in upper left quadrant. Type I pattern was seen among 43.24% of males and 56.71% of females. Type I' pattern was seen among 5.4% of males and 11.94% of females. Type II pattern was seen among 21.62% of males and 17.91% of females. Type III pattern was seen among 16.21% of males and 7.46% of females and Type IV pattern was seen among 13.51% of males and 5.47% of females. Distribution of lip print pattern among males and females in the upper left quadrant of the lip was not statistically significant (Chi-square value was 5.357 and P > 0.05).

Type I pattern was observed among 43.24% of males and 52.83% of females. Type I' pattern was seen in 13.51% of males and 5.97% of females. Type II pattern was seen in 18.91% of males and 22.38% of females. Type III pattern was seen in 10.8% of males and 8.95% of females. And Type IV pattern was seen in 13.51% of males and 10.44% of females. There was no statistically significant difference among all the patterns between males and females (Chi-square value 2.376 and P > 0.05) [Graph 2].

Type I pattern was seen among 59.45% of males and 67.16% of females. Type I' pattern was seen among 2.7% of males and 4.47% of females. Type II pattern was seen among 27.02% of males and 13.43% of females. Type III pattern was observed among 5.4% of males and 5.97% of females and Type IV pattern was seen among 5.4% of males and 8.95% of females. Distribution of lip print pattern among males and females in the lower right quadrant of the lip was not statistically significant (Chi-square value was 3.23 and P > 0.05) [Graph 3].

Type I pattern was seen in 67.56% of males and 64.17% of females, Type I' pattern was seen in 8.1% of males and 4.47% of females, Type II pattern was seen in 16.21% of males and 10.44% of females, Type III pattern was seen in 5.4% of males and 14.92% of females, Type IV pattern was seen in 2.71% of males and 5.97% of females. There was no statistically significant difference among all the patterns between males and females (Chi-square value 3.623 and P > 0.05) [Graph 4].



In the present study, 27 subjects had the same type of lip pattern in all the quadrants. Of the studied subjects, 26 had Type I lip pattern and one had Type I' lip pattern and out of them 20 were females.


   Discussion Top


Libya was historically subdivided into three administrative regions i.e.,the North-east (Tripoli province), North-west (Berca-Benghazi province) and south (Fezzan region). Sebha city is the capital city and the only large urban settlement in the Fezzan region, so Sebha city represents south of Libya. The results of the present study can be extrapolated to the South Libyan population/races-Fezzan region.

Lip prints are prints of an individualistic anatomical character of human lips. Lip print recording is a very useful tool in forensic investigation and may be at times the only available aid at a crime scene. Hence, this study was carried out to study and evaluate the common lip patterns and their variations in the study population and the differences between the sexes.

The most common pattern of lip print in the present study was Type I pattern among both the genders. The results of the present study were in complete coincidence with the studies by Ragab et al. [6] among Egyptian population and Sandhu et al. [7] among Punjabi Indian populations where they found complete vertical pattern to be the most common lip pattern in both genders. The present study differed with the studies conducted by El Domiaty et al. [8] in Almadinah Almonawarah, Costa and Cladas, [9] among the Portuguese population, Prabhu et al. [10] among Goan Indian population where complete vertical grooves were not the most common ones.

In the present study in upper left quadrant Type I pattern of lip print was most common, which is similar to the results reported by Vahanwala and Parekh, [11] but in contrast with results reported by Amith et al. [12] which reported Type I' being the most common.

In the present study, most of the subjects, who had similar lip patterns in all the quadrants, were females. This was similar to the findings reported by Amith et al. [12] and Vahanwala and Parekh. [11]

In the present study, there was no statistically significant difference between males and females regarding any type of lip pattern and that the sex could not be differentiated from the lip print. Similar findings were reported by Ragab et al. [6] among the Egyptian population and by Prabhu et al. [10] in Goan Indian population, whereas contrary findings were reported by Costa and Cladas, [9] in Portuguese population.

Limitations of the present study

The South Libyan population is generally slightly dark skinned homogenous one with the heterogeneity in that the majority being Arabic speakers and in lingual minorities who speak languages of African accent. The authors could not record inter racial difference taking into consideration the prevalent precarious postwar security situation and the cultural sensitivities associated with lingual affiliations.


   Conclusion Top


The conclusions of the present study are as follows:

  • The most common pattern of lip print was Type I followed by Type II, Type III and Type IV. Type I' was the least common lip print pattern. This was found in both genders and was common across the various quadrants
  • No gender-wise difference was observed among the lip prints pattern
  • No statistically significant difference was found between the genders.


 
   References Top

1.
Tsuchihashi Y. Studies on personal identification by means of lip prints. Forensic Sci 1974;3:233-48.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Sivapathasundharam B, Prakash PA, Sivakumar G. Lip prints (cheiloscopy). Indian J Dent Res 2001;12:234-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.
Santos M. Queiloscopy: A supplementary stomatological means of identification. Int Microform J Leg Med 1967;2:64-68.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Suzuki K, Tsuchihashi Y. New attempt of personal identification by means of lip print. J Indian Dent Assoc 1970;42:8-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Renaud M. Cheiloscopic identification in forensic medicine. Nouv Presse Med 1973;2:2617-20.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Ragab AR, El-Dakroory SA, Rahman RH. Characteristic patterns of lip prints in Egyptian population sample at Dhakalia governorate. Int J Leg Med 2012;127:521-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Sandhu SV, Bansal H, Monga P, Bhandari R. Study of lip print pattern in a Punjabi population. J Forensic Dent Sci 2012;4:24-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
8.
El Domiaty MA, Al-gaidi SA, Elayat AA, Safwat MD, Galal SA. Morphological patterns of lip prints in Saudi Arabia at Almadinah Almonawarah province. Forensic Sci Int 2010;200:179.e1-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Costa VA, Caldas IM. Morphologic patterns of lip prints in a Portuguese population: A preliminary analysis. J Forensic Sci 2012;57:1318-22.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Prabhu RV, Dinkar A, Prabhu V. A study of lip print pattern in Goan dental students-A digital approach. J Forensic Leg Med 2012;19:390-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Vahanwala SP, Parekh BK. Study of lip prints as an aid to forensic methodology. J Forensic Med Toxicol 2000;17:12-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Amith HV, Ankola AV, Nagesh L. Lip prints-can it aid in individual identification. J Oral Health Community Dent 2011;5:113-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3052    
    Printed49    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded237    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal