|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 28-34
Baseline data of facial parameters in the population of Haryana: An anthropometric study
Shruti Gupta1, Anjali Narwal2, Mala Kamboj2, Pooja Sharma2, Vanshika Makkar2, Rahul Kr Raman2
1 Department of Oral Anatomy, Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology, Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India
|Date of Web Publication||16-Oct-2019|
Dr. Shruti Gupta
Department of Oral Anatomy, Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Context: Anthropometry plays an important role in the assessment of ethnicity and identification of an individual. There is paucity of literature on various facial parameters in Haryanvi population. Thus, the present study was an initiation to collect this database in Haryanvi population. Aim: The aim of the present study was to create a database of craniofacial parameters of Haryanvi population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 300 individuals of Haryanvi ethnicity. A digital vernier caliper was used for the measurement of facial parameters. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test, t-test, and Pearson's correlation test were used for finding the difference between the measurements for various parameters. Results: In the present study, mesoprosopic was the predominant facial phenotype in both males and females. A significant sexual dimorphism was found between all the facial parameters measured in the study. However, upper facial height and facial index did not follow the same pattern in relation to gender determination. Conclusion: Based on the present study findings, we conclude that craniofacial parameters could be used as an important tool to assess the ethnicity and gender of an individual. In addition, our data could be used as a baseline for further studies in the identification of a Haryanvi individual.
Keywords: Anthropometry, ethnicity, facial index, Haryanvi, identification
|How to cite this article:|
Gupta S, Narwal A, Kamboj M, Sharma P, Makkar V, Raman RK. Baseline data of facial parameters in the population of Haryana: An anthropometric study. J Forensic Dent Sci 2019;11:28-34
|How to cite this URL:|
Gupta S, Narwal A, Kamboj M, Sharma P, Makkar V, Raman RK. Baseline data of facial parameters in the population of Haryana: An anthropometric study. J Forensic Dent Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jan 28];11:28-34. Available from: http://www.jfds.org/text.asp?2019/11/1/28/269265
| Introduction|| |
In the present scenario, there has been a devastating increase in human-made disasters (bomb blasts, terrorist attacks, and mass murders) and natural mass disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, and floods). In addition, in the past few decades, a vast change has occurred in social, economic, cultural, and environmental background of human beings. Thus, the abovementioned disasters necessitate the correct identification of individuals in cases when the body is highly decomposed or dismembered to intentionally hide the identity of an individual. Anthropometry has emerged as a promising branch of forensic science for personal identification, but, currently, it is in its infancy as forensic anthropologists are involved in discovering new methods of identification from skeletal remains, cadavers, and living beings. Anthropometry (anthropos – man; metry – measure) is a science which is used for the identification and understanding of human physical features and plays an important role in assessing the ethnicity and identification of human remains. Craniofacial anthropometry forms an integral part of anthropology and deals with the measurement of face and head. It has a pivotal role in the identification of individuals especially as facial measurements depend on various factors such as gender, race, ethnicity, genetics, and climate. Creation of a database consisting of craniofacial values for various populations is indispensable so that ethnicity and gender of an unknown could be appraised. Once the vital information is collected anthropometrically, other techniques would be helpful for more accurate identification of the individual. Thus, the need of the hour is to encourage newer studies on craniofacial anthropometry from different populations of the world. After extensive search, we found that different studies in the past have used different criteria to assess ethnicity from facial profile in various populations. Thus, the motive behind this study was to use all the parameters which have been studied by different researchers either individually or collectively and to use them in one study to determine the facial profile in Haryanvi population. However, there is paucity of literature on various facial parameters in Haryanvi population. Thus, the present study was conceptualized to initiate this database collection where 300 Haryanvi individuals were anthropometrically evaluated and, to the best of our knowledge, ours is the first study to use all these parameters collectively on Haryanvi population.
Aims and objectives
The aim of the present study was to create a database of craniofacial parameters for Haryanvi population. The objectives were to collect craniofacial data from the population of central Haryana and to compare these data with previous data reported in literature. A gender-based comparison for these measurements was also done.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The present study was carried out on 300 individuals (150 males and 150 females) aged 17–30 years. The participants were purely of Haryanvi ethnic origin and were selected at random from the patients who reported to the outpatient department of our institute. During the selection of participants, their ethnic origin was confirmed by inquiring about their great grandfathers and ancestors. Individuals who confirmed that their ancestors were also from Haryana were included in the study. Individuals with any past and existing craniofacial trauma, facial deformities, facial scars, and facial asymmetries were excluded from the study.
Each participant was explained about the measurement process, and informed consent was obtained from him or her before recording the same. All measurements were carried out by the same observer and under the same conditions. The participants were made to relax in a sitting position, with the head in the correct anatomical position. A digital vernier caliper was used to measure the facial parameters. The reference points which were used to determine various measurements are described in [Table 1] and depicted in [Figure 1].,,,,
|Table 1: Anatomical landmarks used for measurements of facial dimensions|
Click here to view
|Figure 1: Reference points which were used to determine various measurements in the study|
Click here to view
The parameters which were recorded in the study using the abovementioned landmarks are summarized in [Table 2].,,,,
The following formula was used to calculate the facial index (FI):,
The FI has been used to classify the facial phenotype into five categories [Table 3]., Based on the above criteria, we also attempted to classify the facial phenotype using the FI.
Data obtained from the 300 individuals were subjected to statistical analysis. Chi-square test, t-test, Pearson's correlation test, mean, and standard deviation were used to find if any significant relationship existed between males and females. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
| Results|| |
In the present study, mesoprosopic (53) facial phenotype was most predominantly seen in males followed by euriprosopic (43), leptoprosopic (27), hyperleptoprosopic (16), and hypereuriprosopic (11) facial phenotypes. In females, the most commonly observed facial phenotype was mesoprosopic (50) followed by euriprosopic (46), leptoprosopic (26), hypereuriprosopic (18), and hyperleptoprosopic (10) facial phenotypes. No significant difference was observed between males and females on the basis of facial phenotype (P = 0.512).
[Table 4] summarizes the mean, standard deviation, and range of each parameter in males and females. A significant difference was observed between the mean among males and females with respect to subnasale-gnathion (lower facial height [LFH]), width of mouth, intercanthal distance, width of face, physiognomic facial length, and morphological facial length (MFL). No significant difference was observed between the mean among males and females with respect to nasion-subnasale (upper facial height [UFH]) and FI, respectively [Table 4].
In our study, we found a correlation between different parameters with each other in males [Table 5] and females [Table 6]. However, we did not find any other study which tried to correlate the various parameters in males and females separately with each other.
| Discussion|| |
Anthropology encompasses the study of origins and development of human beings and their cultures, investigating the whole range of human development and behavior, including biological variation, geographic distribution, and evolutionary history. Forensic anthropology is the application of the scientific processes of physical/biological anthropology in a medicolegal context. Data useful for the identification of living and dead individuals include the assessment of their ethnicity, age, gender, religion, etc. Craniofacial anthropometry plays an important role in assessing the ethnicity and gender of an individual as intra- and interpopulation variations are affected by ecological, biological, geographical, racial, gender, and age factors. Thus, this study was conducted with the aim of determining the craniofacial measurements of Haryanvi population and to compare them with populations from different ethnicities.
In the present study, the mean distance between nasion-subnasale (UFH) was 55.6 mm in males and 55.33 mm in females. However, Farkas et al. in 2005 reported that, in Indian population, the mean UFH was 47.2 mm in males and 43.7 mm in females. The mean distance between subnasale-gnathion (LFH) in our study was 65.83 mm and 60.35 mm in males and females, respectively. Farkas et al. in Indian population found mean LFH to be 62.7 mm in males and 57.2 mm in females.
The mean MFL in the present study was 121.43 mm in males and 115.68 mm in females. Kumar and Lone  in their study on Harvanyi Banias reported that the mean MFL in males and females was 11.07 cm and 10.21 cm, respectively. The mean width of face in the present study was 139.65 mm in males and 134.94 mm in females. In their study, Kumar and Lone  found that the mean width of face was 13.08 cm and 12.35 cm in males and females, respectively. This slight difference in MFL and width of face between the two studies can be explained on the fact that Kumar and Lone  in their study have included individuals from a single caste of Haryana, whereas in our study, we included Haryanvi individuals irrespective of their caste.
We found that mesoprosopic facial type was prominent in both males and females in Haryanvi population, which was consistent with the findings of Kumar and Lone  who also reported that the predominant facial type in Haryanvi Banias was mesoprosopic. Prasanna et al. in their study compared the FI between North Indian and South Indian populations. They reported that males from both the population were hyperleptoprosopic, whereas North Indian females presented hyperleptoprosopic as the predominant type, but females from South India have very broad face (hypereuriprosopic) predominantly.
When we compared the facial characteristics between males and females, most of the features observed in our study showed significant sexual dimorphism, whereas there was no statistical difference with respect to nasion-subnasale (UFH) and FI. Studies by Baral et al. and Obaidi  revealed that there was no significant difference in facial height proportions between males and females in different population groups. However, Hatwal et al. reported that the mean values of UFH, LFH, and total facial heights were greater in males as compared to females in Garhwal population from Uttarakhand.
To establish the role of craniofacial anthropometry in assessing ethnicity, we compared the findings of our study with those of populations from different regions of India and also among the populations from different parts of the world [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9].
|Table 7: Values for upper and lower facial height from different populations|
Click here to view
|Table 8: Values for morphological facial length, physiognomic facial length, and facial index from different populations|
Click here to view
|Table 9: Values for width of mouth, width of face, and intercanthal distance from different populations|
Click here to view
| Conclusion|| |
It was concluded that the predominant facial phenotype in the Haryanvi population is mesoprosopic. Other than FI and UFH, all the other facial parameters can be used to distinguish individuals on the basis of gender. Therefore, our data could act as a reference for Haryanvi population in assessing the ethnicity and identification of an individual. In addition, the data obtained in our study may prove useful in anthropological research, forensics, genetic research, and reconstructive surgery.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Kanchan T, Krishan K. Personal identification in forensic examinations. Anthropology 2013;2:114.
Khan N, Leela V, Annapuravu G. A study of craniofacial anthropometrics in Hyderabad (Deccan) and a review of literature. J Med Allied Sci 2012;2:54-7.
Hatwal P, Atal DK, Das S. Correlation of upper facial and lower facial height in Garhwali population of Uttarakhand. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2015;37:281-2.
Shetti RV, Pai SR, Sneha GK, Gupta C, Chethan P, Soumya. Study of prosopic (facial) index of Indian and Malaysian students. Int J Morphol 2011;29:1018-21.
Adamu LH, Ojo SA, Danborno B, Adebissi SS, Taura MG. Sex determination using facial linear dimensions and angles among Hausa population of Kano State, Nigeria. Egypt J Forensic Sci 2016;6:459-67.
Agnihotri AK, Kachhwaha S, Googoolye K, Allock A. Estimation of stature from cephalo-facial dimensions by regression analysis in indo-Mauritian population. J Forensic Leg Med 2011;18:167-72.
Farkas LG, Katic MJ, Forrest CR, Alt KW, Bagic I, Baltadjiev G, et al.
International anthropometric study of facial morphology in various ethnic groups/races. J Craniofac Surg 2005;16:615-46.
Williams P, Dyson M, Dussak JE, Bannister LH, Berry MM, Collins P, et al
. Gray's Anatomy. 38th
ed. London: Churchill Livingston; 1995. p. 607-12.
Adebisi S. Forensic anthropology in perspective: The current trend. Internet J Forensic Sci 2008;4.
Mostafa A, Banu LA, Rahman F, Paul S. Craniofacial anthropometric profile of adult Bangladeshi Buddhist Chakma females. J Anthropol 2013;2013.
Kumar M, Lone MM. The study of facial index among Haryanvi adults. Int J Sci Res 2013;2:51-3.
Prasanna LC, Bhosale S, D'Souza AS, Mamatha H, Thomas RH, Sachin K. Facial indices of North and South Indian adults: Reliability in stature estimation and sexual dimorphism. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7:1540-2.
Baral P, Lobo SW, Menezes RG, Kanchan T, Krishan K, Bhattacharya S, et al.
An anthropometric study of facial height among four endogamous communities in the Sunsari district of Nepal. Singapore Med J 2010;51:212-5.
Obaidi HA. Variation of facial heights among the class I, II and III dentoskeletal relationships (cephalometric study). Al Rafidain Dent J 2006;6:98-105.
Jagadish Chandra H, Ravi MS, Sharma SM, Rajendra Prasad B. Standards of facial esthetics: An anthropometric study. J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2012;11:384-9.
Pandey AK. Cephalo-facial variation among Onges. Anthropologist 2006;8:245-9.
Shah T, Patel MN, Nath S, Menon SK. Determination of sex using cephalo-facial dimensions by discriminant function and logistic regression equations. Egypt J Forensic Sci 2016;6:114-9.
Kataria DS, Ranjan RK, Perwaiz SA. Study of variation in total facial index of North Indian population. Int J Health Sci Res 2015;5:122-7.
Omotoso DR, Oludiran OO, Sakpa CL. Nasofacial anthropometry of adult Bini Tribe in Nigeria. Afr J Biomed Res 2011;14:219-21.
Jeremic D, Kocic S, Vulovic M, Sazdanovic M, Sazdanovic P, Jovanovic B, et al
. Anthropometric study of the facial index in the population of central Serbia. Arch Biol Sci 2013;65:1163-8.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9]