Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
May-August 2017
Volume 9 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 51-110

Online since Thursday, November 16, 2017

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Oral mark in the application of an individual identification: From ashes to truth p. 51
Anshul Chugh, Anumeha Narwal
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_103_15  PMID:29263607
Forensic odontology is the branch of dentistry which deals with the proper handling, examination, evaluation and presentation of dental findings in the interest of justice. After major disasters and perimortem assaults such as earthquakes, fires, severe head and neck trauma or gross decomposition, accurate and early identification of dead and injured becomes important. In the absence of other records in such cases, identification is based on restorations, missing teeth and prosthetic devices such as partial and complete removable/fixed prosthesis or implant retained devices. This brings out the major role of prosthodontics to investigate the identity of suspects in the criminal cases as well as the deceased human beings in traumatic injuries or in disasters. Denture identification systems are being used as means of postmortem identification of edentulous persons which has evolved from the inclusion of some form of printed label in a denture to more high-tech methods. The provision of implant retained complete lower denture, antemortem, and postmortem radiographs of edentulous persons and correlation of bite marks using special impression techniques provide another potential source of evidence for human identification. Hence, this literature review throws some light on the role played by prosthodontist in forensic odontology.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Significance of mandibular canine index in sexual dimorphism and aid in personal identification in forensic odontology p. 56
Neha Gandhi, Sandeep Jain, Harkiranjot Kahlon, Arshdeep Singh, Ramandeep Singh Gambhir, Akanksha Gaur
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_15_16  PMID:29263608
Background: Forensic odontology is basically the science dealing with establishing identity by teeth and has played an important, often crucial, role in the identification of victims of mass disasters. Among all teeth, the mandibular canines are found to exhibit greatest sexual dimorphism. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of mandibular canine index (MCI) in the determination of sex. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 62 subjects (31 males, 31 females). Mesiodistal diameter of mandibular canines was measured with the help of digital Vernier calipers. Intercanine distance was measured with the help of a divider. The standard MCI value is used as a cut off point to differentiate males from females. Statistical analysis was done using t-test. Results: The width of mandibular canine was higher in males than in females, which was statistically significant. The left canine is found to exhibit greater sexual dimorphism, i.e., 7.62% as compared with right canine, i.e., 6.85%. The calculated standard MCI for both male and female was 0.247. With these calculations, the overall percentage of sex determination was 79.03%. Conclusion: The ability to determine gender using Standard MCI was estimated to be 73.33% in males and 80% in females. It was concluded that with standard MCI, it was possible to detect sex for forensic purposes.
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Orbital aperture morphometry in Indian population: A digital radiographic study p. 61
Laboni Ghorai, ML Asha, J Lekshmy, Basetty Neelakantam Rajarathnam, HM Mahesh Kumar
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_65_16  PMID:29263609
Background: Morphological variations of the orbital aperture measurements may be used in forensic medicine as a parameter for determining sexual and ethnic identity of an individual. Aim and Objective: The aim and objective of this study was to evaluate the orbital aperture dimensions in Indian individuals and verify their relationship with gender. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using digital posteroanterior view radiographs of 50 males and 51 females, which were taken using NEWTOM GIANO-CEFLA SC machine (81 kVp, 10 mA, and 6.6 s). The orbital aperture measurements were carried out using NEWTOM software NNT version 5.5. The maximum width and height of the orbits and the inter-orbital distance were measured. The obtained data were subjected to t-test and discriminant function analysis. Results: In the t-test, significant differences in orbital width and inter-orbital distance were obtained between the genders. On subjecting the data to discriminant function analysis, result was obtained with 86.1% accuracy rate in gender determination. Conclusion: If the discriminant score is >1.0365, the skull is likely to be of a male, and if it is <1.0365, it is likely to be of a female. Therefore, orbital aperture measurements can be used for gender determination in human identification.
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The relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in a National and an International Forensic Odontology Journal: A 5-year content analysis p. 65
Ravi Kumar Thetakala, BR Chandrashekar, Siddanna Sunitha, Priyanka Sharma
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_17_16  PMID:29263610
Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the quantum of articles published by various dental specialties in a National and an International Forensic Odontology Journal from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014. Settings and Design: The present study is a 5-year retrospective content analysis study. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected from two forensic odontology journals (Journal of Forensic Odonto Stomatology [JOFS] and Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences [JFDS]) which are subscribed by institutional library. The article contents were scrutinized by one investigator and categorized into nine individual dental specialties based on the new working classification proposed for forensic odontology. Statistical Analysis Used: The quantum of articles published by various dental specialties and the various focus areas in each specialty were assessed using Chi-square test. Results: Among all the published articles, a maximum number of articles were related to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology (32.6%) in JFDS with Cheiloscopy (46.7%) being more focused area and to the Department of Prosthodontics (25.7%) in JFOS with Bite mark analysis (66.7%) being more focused area. Conclusions: There was a scarcity of information about the relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in JFDS and JFOS. The editorial board of journals should expand and elaborate their scope of journals to various focus areas of forensic odontology. This will encourage the researchers to explore in the different focus areas which are most neglected as of now.
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Correlation of lip patterns, gender, and blood group in North Kerala population: A study of over 800 individuals p. 73
Shaini Basheer, Divya Gopinath, PM Shameena, S Sudha, J Dhana Lakshmi, Litha
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_8_16  PMID:29263611
Context: With the ever-changing field of criminal justice, the constant revision of criteria for acceptable evidence by the judiciary poses new challenges in forensic investigation. The applicability of cheiloscopy in individual identification is an area of extensive research in recent years. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of different lip print patterns in North Kerala population, to assess any sexual dimorphism in lip patterns, and to correlate lip print patterns with ABO and Rh blood groups. Materials and Methods: A total of 858 students, 471 males and 387 females, from different colleges in the district of Kozhikode in North Kerala were included in the study. Lip prints were obtained using lipstick and cello tape and transferred onto white papers. Blood group of the participants was noted. Results: The most predominant pattern observed was Type I (48.3%), followed by Type II, Type III, Type IV, Type I', and Type V. We also observed that the lower lip exhibited an overwhelming predominance of Type I pattern in the North Kerala population while the upper lip showed a more even distribution. Gender-wise difference was observed with Type II being the most common in males and Type IV being the predominant pattern in females. No correlation was obtained between the blood groups and lip patterns. Conclusion: The potential usefulness of cheiloscopy in forensic medicine still remains largely untapped and under-recognized. Similar studies in different populations with large sample sizes will allow a more definite picture of lip print patterns to emerge.
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Maintenance of antemortem dental records in private dental clinics: Knowledge, attitude, and practice among the practitioners of Mangalore and surrounding areas p. 78
Surbhi Wadhwani, Pushparaja Shetty, SV Sreelatha
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_64_15  PMID:29263612
Introduction: With time, an increase in the number of crimes, mass disasters, and wars, has led to the identification of the deceased or assailant critical. In such circumstances, antemortem dental records play a crucial role. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey involved 95 dentists practicing in and around Mangalore. The structured questionnaire comprised 24 questions regarding the practice of maintenance of dental records. The questionnaire was given either personally or sent by post. The data obtained was subjected to descriptive analysis. Results: With 87% of the dentists maintaining records, only 31% of them recorded all the details required to be present in a dental record. Of these 18% of them maintained the records for >5 years. Conclusion: The results suggest that most of the practicing dentists in this area either do not maintain or maintain inadequate records, which is alarming. Thus, there is a need to set protocols to increase the awareness for maintaining good dental records.
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Age estimation of living Indian individuals based on aspartic acid racemization from tooth biopsy specimen p. 83
Manu Rastogi, Ajay Logani, Naseem Shah, Abhishek Kumar, Saurabh Arora
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_21_16  PMID:29263613
Background: Age estimation in living individuals is imperative to amicably settle civil and criminal disputes. A biochemical method based on amino acid racemization was evaluated for age estimation of living Indian individuals. Design: Caries-free maxillary/mandibular premolar teeth (n = 90) were collected from participants with age proof documents and divided into predefined nine age groups. Materials and Methods: Dentine biopsy from the labial aspect of the tooth crown was taken with an indigenously developed microtrephine. The samples were processed and subjected to gas chromatography. Dextrorotatory:levorotatory ratios were calculated, and a regression equation was formulated. Results: Across all age groups, an error of 0 ± 4 years between protein racemization age and chronological age was observed. Conclusion: Aspartic acid racemization from dentine biopsy samples could be a viable and accurate technique for age estimation of living individuals who have attained a state of skeletal maturity.
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The magnification in the lower third and second molar region in the digital panoramic radiographs p. 91
Giedrė Trakiniene, Antanas Šidlauskas, Vilma Švalkauskienė, Dalia Smailienė, Julija Urbonė
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_48_16  PMID:29263614
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of linear measurements of the lower third and second molar crowns in the digital panoramic radiographs and to compare them with plaster models as the calibration standard. Materials and Methods: The digital panoramic radiographs and plaster models of the orthodontic patients were used in the study. Standardized metal calibration gauges (MCGs) were bonded to the buccal surface of the lower molars bilaterally. Measurements in the panoramic radiographs were done using Dolphin Imaging 11.8 Premium program. Results: Forty-one panoramic radiographs and diagnostic plaster models of the orthodontic patients (mean age 18.45 ± 2.35) were analyzed. Eighty-two lower third molars, 82 second molars, and 82 first molars were evaluated. The magnification coefficients (MCC) calculated according to the plaster models ranged from 1.07 to 1.08. The magnification coefficients calculated according to the bonded MCG were about 1.04. The differences between the teeth groups and right-left sides were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Spearman correlation showed a positive medium correlation between the magnification using the calibration with plaster models and metal gauges (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The magnification in the lower first, second, and third molars regions showed almost the same values. The calculation of magnification coefficient using bonded metal calipers was more accurate than calculation according to the plaster models, but the differences were not statistically significant. The use of the plaster models for calibration of the magnification coefficient in the good-positioned lower molars' region might be used as an alternative to the bonded MCGs. Trial registration: The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences BC-OF-73 retrospectively registered.
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Assessment of age of majority by measurement of open apices of the third molars using Cameriere's third molar maturity index p. 96
Preeti Sharma, Vijay Wadhwan, SM Ravi Prakash, Pooja Aggarwal, Neeraj Sharma
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_31_16  PMID:29263615
Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of biological age of a living subject around the legal cutoff age for adulthood has become a grave concern for forensic experts in India, mainly due to the consequences of criminal obligations in judicial proceedings. Thus, this study was planned to examine the open apices of third molars in discriminating between individuals who are aged 18 years or older and who are not 18 years or older and to assign a cutoff for estimation of the age of 18 years. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomographs of 1062 individuals (14 and 23 years) were assessed, to verify Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I3M). The apical ends of the roots of the left mandibular third molar were analyzed. If the apical ends of the roots are completely closed, then I3Mis zero; otherwise, it is calculated as the sum of the distances between the inner sides of the two open apices divided by the tooth length. Results and Conclusion: The sensitivity of the test for 0.08 value was 74.7% for males and 66% for females. Specificity was 83.6% for males and 79.6% for females. The probability that an Indian individual with an I3M<0.08 in 18 years or older is 78% for males and 70.3% for females. I3Mis efficacious to determine age in Indian population.
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CASE REPORT Top

An unusual case of incomplete tooth germ transposition: A rare case report p. 102
Ashwin Devasya, Mythri Sarpangala
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_28_16  PMID:29263616
Transposition is an exchange of positions of two adjacent teeth. This is a condition with an incidence of 0.33%. Etiology is multifactorial; genetic influence is the most supported cause. Dental transposition is a multifactorial condition. While transposition of tooth germ is the rarest condition, this helps in identification of a person in mass casualties due to any disaster, or crimes, fraud. The present case is an incidence of incomplete transposition of right mandibular permanent second molar tooth germ, causing resorption of the roots of permanent first molar with possible loss of that tooth, which is a unique presentation.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

The Indian Board of Forensic Odontology fellowship: A personal experience Highly accessed article p. 106
Aman Chowdhry
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.218578  PMID:29263617
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ONLINE ONLY ARTICLES: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Morphometric significance of maxillary arch in sexual dimorphism in North Indian population p. 108
Manisha Jakhar, Vaishali Shende, Raj Kumar Maurya, Narinder Kumar, Mamta Malik, Sanjeev Laller
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_53_16  PMID:29263618
Background: Tooth is the hardest and chemically (except mineral contents) the most stable structure in the body, which makes teeth as the first-rate material for genetic and forensic investigations. Sex determination of skeletal remains forms an important part of archaeological and medicolegal examinations. Hence, the aim of the present study was to analyse the morphometric and dimensional variation between male and female in north Indian population using maxillary arch parameters. Materials and Methods: Fifty male and fifty female patients of age group 18–35 years were randomly selected after taking detail history. All maxillary impressions were made with alginate and poured in type III dental stone. These casts were measured for maxillary inter-canine width, maxillary first inter-premolar width, anteroposterior palatal width and palatal depth using a digital vernier caliper and findings were correlated with sexual dimorphism. Results: The maxillary inter-canine width, maxillary first inter-premolar width, and palatal depth showed a significant difference with P < 0.05 between the means of two populations. Anteroposterior palatal width showed the comparatively less significant difference between two populations. Conclusion: Among north Indian population, maxillary inter-canine width, maxillary first inter-premolar width, and palatal depth can be used for sex assessment. The anteroposterior palatal width parameter is comparatively less significant in sex determination.
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Role of forensic dentistry for dental practitioners: A comprehensive study p. 108
Vanita Rathod, Veena Desai, Siddharth Pundir, Sudhanshu Dixit, Rashmi Chandraker
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_93_15  PMID:29263619
Objectives: The aim of present study is to analyze assess the awareness about forensic odontology among dental practitioners in center part of India. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 100 dental practitioners in Bhilai-Durg and data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Results: About 30% of dental practitioners not maintain dental records in their clinic, 70% maintained dental records. Nearly, 60% dental practitioners use the appropriate method for diagnosis, while rest are not. Sixty-five percent dental practitioners know the accurate and sensitive way of identify individuals. Thirty percent dental practitioner did not know the significance of bite-mark patterns of the teeth, about 75% dental practitioners did not aware that they could testify as an expert witness in the court of law. Only 15% dental practitioners have formal training in collecting, evaluating, and presenting dental evidence. Seventy-five percent dental practitioners not confident to deal with forensic cases. Conclusions: Our study revealed inadequate knowledge, lack of awareness about forensic odontology, among dental practitioners in Chhattisgarh.
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Mandibular canine: A tool for sex identification in forensic odontology p. 109
Ramniwas M Kumawat, Sarika L Dindgire, Mangesh Gadhari, Pratima G Khobragade, Priyanka S Kadoo, Pradeep Yadav
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_41_16  PMID:29263620
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of mandibular canine index (MCI) and mandibular mesiodistal odontometrics in sex identification in the age group of 17–25 years in central Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised total 300 individuals (150 males and 150 females) of an age group ranging from 17 to 25 years of central Indian population. The maximum mesiodistal diameter of mandibular canines, the linear distance between the tips of mandibular canines, was measured using digital vernier caliper on the study models. Results: Overall sex could be predicted accurately in 79.66% (81.33% males and 78% females) of the population by MCI. Whereas, considering the mandibular canine width for sex identification, the overall accuracy was 75% for the right mandibular canine and 73% for the left mandibular canine observed. Conclusion: Sexual dimorphism of canine is population specific, and among the Indian population, MCI and mesiodistal dimension of mandibular canine can aid in sex determination.
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Comparative assessment of maxillary canine index and maxillary first molar dimensions for sex determination in forensic odontology p. 110
Rashmi G. S. Phulari, Rajendrasinh Rathore, Trupti Talegaon, Prachi Jariwala
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_4_16  PMID:29263621
Background: Sexual identification of immature skeletal remains is still a difficult problem to solve in forensic anthropology. In such situations, the odontometric features of the teeth can be of immense help. Teeth, being the hardest and chemically the most stable tissue in the body, are an excellent material in living and nonliving populations for anthropological, genetic, odontologic, and forensic investigations. Using tooth size standards, whenever it is possible to predict the sex, identification is made easier because then only missing persons of one sex need to be considered. Aim: To determine sex from the odontometric data using maxillary canine index and maxillary first molar dimensions and to determine which index gives higher accuracy rate for sex determination using only maxillary cast. Materials and Methods: In a sample size of 200 population (100 male and 100 female), alginate impression was taken of maxillary arch and poured with dental stone. Using Vernier caliper, the dimension of maxillary first molar (buccolingual [BL] and mesiodistal [MD]), canine (MD), and intercanine distance was measured on the cast. The obtained data were analyzed using discriminant statistical analysis. Result and Conclusion: This study concludes that BL dimension of maxillary first molar is a more reliable indicator for gender determination than other molar and canine dimensions in maxilla.
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