Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
May-August 2019
Volume 11 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 57-112

Online since Friday, January 24, 2020

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Dental age estimation methods in adult dentitions: An overview Highly accessed article p. 57
Meenal Verma, Nikhil Verma, Rakhee Sharma, Ashish Sharma
Age estimation is one of the essential factors in human identification. Teeth bestowed with features such as hardness and resilience to external factors such as chemicals, putrefaction, and fire explosions serve as a durable source in age estimation. Concurrently, they present with peculiar and comparable features of age-associated regressive changes along with dental procedures, which make them a mirror reflection of age changes from cradle to the grave of an individual. Age estimation in adults poses an enigma to the forensic dentists because as the age advances, the dentitions get influenced by numerous exogenous and endogenous factors which may lead to discrepancies between dental age and chronologic age. Since 1950, many authors have presented various methods for assessing age of individuals above 18 years. Here is an overview of the different methods with their application and limitations along with a mention of newer methods developed and tested with the formulation of population-specific formulas by Indian authors. The data have been sourced from different journal articles retrieved through Google Scholar and PubMed Central and articles received as study materials during the fellowship program in forensic odontology using keywords such as age estimation, adult dentitions, dentin translucency, and cementum annulations.
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Establishment of the forensic odontology department: A proposed model for the basic infrastructure and forensic odontology kit p. 64
Jayasankar Purushothaman Pillai, Thamarai Selvan Chokkalingam, Balamurugan Aasaithambi, Emilio Nuzzolese
The importance and the application of dental science and forensic odontology in the legal system are gradually increasing in India. In a long-term vision, there is a need for a specialized forensic training curriculum not only for the undergraduate and postgraduate dental students but also for the experienced dental surgeons. Dental experts opinion is sought most commonly in forensic casework of human identification, age estimation, and sexual assault cases with patterned injury, by the legal and forensic authorities. As a consequence, there is a demand for dentists trained in forensic and legal dentistry and experienced in forensic, capable of dealing and managing medicolegal cases in dental institutes or state hospitals. Several guidelines and protocols for forensic odontology procedures are drafted and proposed by forensic odontology organizations. However, there are no specific guidelines or recommendations for the establishment of a specialized forensic odontology department or unit in dental institutes. Hence, this article addresses the necessity and requirements for a forensic odontology unit, proposing a model to follow. A comprehensive list of forensic odontology armamentarium and case dependent forensic odontology kits is also highlighted here.
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Brazilian's dental anthropometry: Human identification p. 73
Diana Maria Souza e Couto, Nívia Cristina Duran Gallassi, Stefany de Lima Gomes, Viviane Ulbricht, João Sarmento Pereira Neto, Eduardo Daruge Junior, Luiz Francesquini Junior
Background: Human stature and sex determination are significant data that can and should be used in criminal profiling in the human identification processes. Teeth are widely used in investigations because of their properties of resistance and uniqueness. Aims: The present study aimed to verify, by means of dental anthropometry, the correlation of these with the stature and sex. Materials and Methods: Measurements of linear (mid distal and incisor cervical) dental measurements were performed on the upper right teeth of Brazilians, aged between 18 and 30 years, being 100 male and 100 female participants. Linear dental measurements were measured with a digital caliper and stature was measured with a stadiometer. For the statistical analysis, the IBM® SPSS® 25 Statistics program was used. Kolmogorov–Smirnov, Pearson correlation, and Stepwise-Forward (Wald) logistic regression analyses were applied to sex determination and stature estimation. Results: The results indicated that all measures performed are dimorphic, but that lateral incisor and canine tooth measurements are statistically significant with a P ≤ 0.001. The obtained model allows for sexing with 70.5% accuracy, being able to be used in anthropological studies in Brazilians. Conclusion: It can be concluded that dental measurements are useful tools to identify gender and the canine measurements also showed a strong and proportional correlation with stature, but it was not possible to establish a mathematical model for this.
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Applicability of Cameriere European formula for age estimation of 10–15 years legal threshold in South Indian population p. 78
Ashalata Gannepalli, Sudheer B Balla, Venkat Baghirath Pacha, DB Gandhi Babu
Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the relationship between chronological age (CA) and the measurement of the open apices in teeth and also assess the accuracy of Cameriere methods on dental age (DA) estimation in the South Indian population. Subjects and Methods: A sample of 200 orthopantomographs of children aged between 10 and 15 years were collected. The seven left permanent mandibular teeth were evaluated with Cameriere method. Results: Regression analysis was carried out which derived the following linear regression formula: Age = 14.117 − 0.01 g − 1.732W3 + 0.016N0− 0.289 × 5 − 0.099.s. N0.The equation explained 88.3% (R2 = 0.883) of the total deviance. The accuracy of the European formula and South Indian formula was determined by the difference between the estimated DA and CA. Cameriere formula produced 32% and 18% of absolute residuals falls within the range of ± 1 and ± 0.5 years, whereas the new regression formula produced 72% and 35% within range of ± 1 and ± 0.5 years. Conclusion: This further highlight the importance of population-specific formula keeping in mind about variation in dental maturation across different regions.
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Olze et al. stages of radiographic visibility of root pulp and cameriere's third molar maturity index to estimate legal adult age in Hyderabad population p. 84
G Kiran Kumar, D R Shravan Kumar, Ganesh Kulkarni, Sudheer B Balla, N D. V.N Shyam, Yashovardhan Naishadham
Context: Predicting one's attainment of age of majority is a controversial issue and considered as important aspect in medicolegal cases. In India, individuals older than 18 years of age have full capacity regarding civil conduct and are tried as adults for criminal charges. Aims and Objective: To compare the accuracy of Olze et al., stages of radiographic visibility of root pulp, and Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I3M< 0.08) to estimate the age of majority. Materials and Methods: A total of 615 digital orthopantomographs of children aged between 15 and 22 years. The lower left third molars were evaluated using ImageJ computer software. The effectiveness of both methods was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratios (LR+), and LR negative (LR−). Results: For I3M< 0.08, the sensitivity, specificity, LR+, LR− were 0.76, 0.72, 2.79, 0.32 and 0.67, 0.76, 2.83, 0.43 in males and females respectively. For Stage 0, the sensitivity, specificity, LR+, LR− were 0.68, 0.86, 5.18, 0.36 and 0.72, 0.91, 8.63, 0.31, respectively. Conclusion: Stage 0 of Olze's radiographic root pulp visibility showed to be more accurate than cutoff value of I3M< 0.08 in discriminating adults and minors of Hyderabad sample when a test of high sensitivity and specificity is required.
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Facial psychophysiology in forensic investigation: A novel idea for deception detection p. 90
Selwin Gabriel Samuel, Tanushree Chatterjee, Himadri Thapliyal, Priyanka Kacker
Background: Polygraph or lie detection test has been used since early 90s as an effective method in forensic investigations. However, polygraph does not have a stand-alone value in legal forums. Any novel scientific addition can strengthen the credibility of the polygraph. Aim: This study aims to determine whether the deception could be detected with the help of polygraph where electromyography (EMG) readings of the masseter muscle, along with electrocardiography and galvanic skin response, were considered. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 14 participants in a well-established research setup. Card Test and Affirmative Test were performed on participants and the readings were critically analyzed. Results: In both the tests performed, the deceptions were easily detected once and rarely detected twice. In some cases, the deceptions were undetected. Conclusion: The result indicated with minimal credence that EMG helps in detecting deception. The accuracy of detection however can be confirmed only after an extensive research.
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Role of dental pulp in age estimation:A quantitative and morphometric study p. 95
Anjum Baker, K Karpagaselvi, Jayalakshmi Kumaraswamy, MR Ranjini, Jabeen Gowher
Context: This study was designed to characterize the role of the dental pulp (DP) in age estimation. Aim: The analysis of age-related quantifiable changes in DP components such as odontoblasts, collagen fibers, and blood vessels. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty extracted teeth from six age groups (20–30 years, 31–40 years, 41–50 years, 51–60 years, 61–70 years, and 71–80 years) were subjected to decalcification and routine histopathological processing followed by Hematoxylin and Eosin and Picrosirius Red staining. Evaluation of the number of odontoblasts, mean vessel area (MVA), mean vessel diameter (MVD), and collagen fiber thickness were done. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA test, Fisher's test, and Regression Analysis. Results: Reduction in the number of odontoblasts/mm of pulp-dentinal border, MVA, and MVD were seen with advancing age. Rise in collagen fiber thickness was noted with increasing age. All parameters showed strongly statistically significant differences between age groups with P = 0.001 (ANOVA test). Conclusions: Regression formulae derived for age estimation based on data collected demonstrated linear correlation with age. Collagen fiber thickness had the highest accuracy followed by odontoblast numbers and MVA. MVD was the least accurate among the factors considered. However, the highest accuracy of 90.9% was seen when all parameters were incorporated together in a single equation.
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Prevalence of congenitally missing second premolar teeth in the Dravidian population p. 103
Lakshimi Lakshmanan, Deepa Gurunathan
Introduction: In the practice of dentistry, one of the most common dental anomalies encountered is the congenitally missing teeth (CMT) with dierent prevalence in each region. CMT are those that fail to erupt in the oral cavity and remain invisible in radiographs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of congenitally missing second premolar teeth in the Dravidian population that can be used in forensic research. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, a total of 4600 panoramic radiographs of Dravidian children (2580 girls and 2020 boys) with an age group of 9–17 years were viewed for congenitally missing second premolar teeth. Results: The total number of congenitally missing second premolars was 80 (1.73%). The prevalence was seen more in girls (60%) than boys (40%). Mandibular second premolar was the most commonly missing teeth. Bilateral agenesis (66%) was more prevalent than the unilateral agenesis (34%). Conclusion: The prevalence of congenitally missing second premolar teeth in the Dravidian population was 1.02%. The study of CMT is important in performing dental treatments and also in the field of forensic research as it can provide knowledge on the diversities among populations.
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Tori in a Malaysian population: Morphological and ethnic variations p. 107
Lahari A Telang, Ajay Telang, Jayashri Nerali, Philip Pradeep
Aim: Tori are nonneoplastic self-limiting, bony exostosis that are commonly called torus palatinus (TP) when seen on the hard palate and termed torus mandibularis (TM) when seen on the lingual surface of the mandible. These lesions have long been known to anthropologists and have mostly been identified incidentally during routine dental examinations. The prevalence of tori varies in different populations from 0.0% to 66% for TP and between 0.1% and 63.4% for TM. The exact etiology is still unclear, but the most accepted theory today is 30% attributed to genetics and 70% to environmental factors. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tori and study their morphology among various ethnic groups of a Malaysian population. Materials and Methods: A ross-sectional study was conducted involving the screening of patients that reported to the oral medicine clinics over a 2-year period. Age, gender, ethnicity, morphological variations in shape and size, number, and location of tori were recorded in all positive cases. Results: Fourteen percent of individuals (n = 624) among the total 4443 who were screened were found to have either palatine tori, mandibular tori, or both. The prevalence of PT and MT was 10.8% and 0.9%, respectively. Tori were found in people in the age range of 5–85 years, with the maximum in the age range of 20–29 years (24.7%). The male-to-female ratio for PT and MT was 1:1.4 and 1:0.68, respectively. The morphologic shapes of palatine tori that were observed were flat (10%), spindle (10%), linear (15%), and nodular (59%) with up to six lobules. Mandibular tori were located either unilaterally or bilaterally; they were nodular in shape (89%) and/or band like (15%), with the band-like shape being described for the first time. Size variations ranging from 0.5 to 5 cm were observed. Conclusion: The relatively high prevalence of tori among major ethnic groups of this region supports the probable hypothesis of the role of environmental factors. A wide variation in the morphology was also noted, along with a new morphologic variant of band-like TM, which may be due to the influence of diet or an unknown environmental factor.
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