Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
September-December 2019
Volume 11 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 113-168

Online since Wednesday, June 3, 2020

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Forensic odontology: The prosthetic ID Highly accessed article p. 113
Poonam Prakash, Kirandeep Singh, SK Bhandari
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_91_19  
The term “forensic science” involves forensic (or forensis, in Latin), which means a public discussion or debate. In a more modern context, however, forensic applies to courts or the judicial system. Combine that with science, and forensic science means applying scientific methods and processes to solving crimes. People can be identified by their fingerprints, foot creases, and from traces of their DNA from blood, skin, hair, saliva, and semen by DNA analysis. However, in situations where these records are unavailable or unusable due to the nature of the disaster, the dental records and aids prove to be useful for victim identification. This article aims at highlighting the importance of the dental records and the forensic odontology in the accurate and efficient identification of the conflict victims or deceased to serve as an important adjunct to the forensic medicine in a simplified manner.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Age determination in children by orthopantomograph and lateral cephalogram: A comparative digital study p. 118
Anand J Patel, Jigna S Shah
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_61_19  
Background and Aims: The assessment of age is useful in forensic medicine and forensic odontology and in treatment planning in various branch of dentistry. The aim of study is comparative evaluation and assessment of applicability of Demirjian's method, Willem's method of dental age (DA) estimation, and Maria de Paula Caldas's method of skeletal age estimation for children aged 9–16 years. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 individuals (70 females and 70 males) between the age group of 9–16 years were enrolled. These individuals were grouped by a difference of 1 year into 7 groups (each group comprising of 20 individuals: 10 males and 10 females). Dental age estimation was performed from orthopantomograph images of mandibular teeth of left quadrant by both Demirjian's and Willem's methods. Skeletal age estimation was done from Lateral Cephalogram by Caldas Digital Method. The differences between the chronological age and the estimated dental and skeletal ages were statistically tested using paired t-test. Results: Demirjian's DA estimation overestimated males (0.4040 years) and females (0.1316 years). Willem's DA estimation method underestimated males (0.1386 years) and females (0.4210 years) and Caldas skeletal age estimation overestimated males (0.2982 years) and females (0.4259 years). Conclusion: The study concluded Willem's DA estimation method was the most accurate for male and Demirjian's method for female for Gujarati Population. Caldas's new computer-assisted method for skeletal age estimation used in the present study is easy to perform and less time-consuming and objective method and can be applied for Gujarati population.
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A comparative study of sagittal dental relationship using digital method of bite mark evaluation p. 125
Pallavi Raina, Narayan Kulkarni, Romil Shah
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_80_19  
Introduction: Intercuspation of teeth depends on position of teeth and jaws. Bite mark is the resultant of the intercuspation of teeth produced by an individual. Aims and Objective: Comparative evaluation of bite marks in Angle's Class I, II, and III sagittal occlusion. Materials and Methods: Three groups as per Angle's classification-Class I, Class II, and Class III relation were taken. Each group comprised 30 samples each. The dental casts were scanned to create digital images. “IC Measure” software was used to determine the angular and linear measurements on scanned images of study model after calibration. Internal angles of odontometric triangle, intercanine width, shape of the arch, size, and shape of the individual teeth was recorded and subjected to the statistical analysis. Results: All incisors had rectangular and canine had triangular shape. Bilateral maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular left central incisor were significantly small in size for Class III. Square arch form was found more commonly in Class III and ovoid arch form in Class I and Class II occlusion. Intercanine width was insignificant among all occlusions. All the angles of the odontometric triangle in the maxillary and mandibular arches were significant for Class III. Conclusion: Class III occlusion individuals were distinct for shape of the arch and angles of maxillary and mandibular odontometric triangle. The quantified values of odontometric triangle can be utilized for the identification of Class III individuals.
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Is panoramic mandibular index a reliable marker in the evaluation of bone mineral density and sexual dimorphism?? p. 133
Tanya Khaitan, Anjani Kumar Shukla, Prashant Gupta, Shantala R Naik
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_92_19  
Introduction: Osteoporosis is a silent, progressive, and chronic disease affecting bones of the adults, especially postmenopausal women. Its effect on mandibular bone quality has also been described by some authors in men inferring that gender and age are factors that may influence bone mineral density (BMD) and prognosis. The panoramic radiograph is used widely for the early detection of osteoporosis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether the panoramic mandibular index (PMI) is useful for BMD and sexual dimorphism. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients (30 males and 30 females) in the age group of 25–40 years were selected for the study. Orthopantomograph was taken and PMI determined with the help of Sidexis next-generation software. All the measurements were performed by four observers and data subjected to the statistical analysis. Results: The mean superior PMI was 0.22–0.27, and the inferior PMI was 0.28–0.34. The mean superior and inferior linear measurements from the mental foramen were higher in males than females and statistically significant. The mean mandibular cortical width was 3.8–4.7 mm but did not show much gender difference. Conclusion: PMI is a reliable indicator for determining BMD but is not much influenced by gender variation.
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Radiographic evaluation of remodeling of mandible in adult South Indian population: Implications in forensic science p. 137
Veena Krishnan, LS Sreela, Philips Mathew, Twinkle S Prasad
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_95_19  
Introduction: Panoramic X-ray is an imagiological examination produced by a technique that exhibits images of the facial structure present in the upper and lower dental arches, as well as the support structures in the diagnosis of problems that require a broad view of the oral–maxillofacial complex, such as the assessment of traumatisms, extensive lesions, dental development, tooth retention, and growth anomalies. Many morphological and anatomical changes are exhibited by the mandible with the advancement of age and changes in gender, as well as dentoalveolar condition of the patient, and it can be assessed with the help of such radiograph, thus playing an important role in personal identification in forensic dentistry. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the changes in gonial angle (GA), antegonial angle (AGA), and antegonial depth (AGD) in adult mandible with regard to age, gender, and dental status using panoramic radiographs. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional retrospective study was done using hospital records. Subjects and Methods: A total of 100 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. The images were grouped into three age groups (40–70) of 10 years each. GA, AGA, and AGD were digitally measured from the radiographs. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics of the variables were expressed in percentage, frequencies, mean, and standard deviations. Statistical differences between the variables were explored using independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA. The significant level was set as 0.05. Results: There were no significant changes in GA, AGA, and AGD with age and dental status of the patients. Males had significantly smaller GA and AGA than females. Understandably, AGD was significantly greater in males than females.Conclusions: Remodeling changes of the mandible with respect to the age groups and dental status studied were minimal. However, gender-related differences in ante AGA, depth, and GA were significant, which can be used as a tool in forensic identification.
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Age estimation and comparison by dental and skeletal maturity in the age range of 9–18 years in the Mumbai region p. 142
Hemlata Pandey, Vandana Tripathi, Harish Pathak, Sumit K Choudhary, Manoj B Parchake
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_90_19  
Background: Age estimation is crucial in the identification of juveniles in conflicts with law, survivor of sexual assault, sportsperson, and civil cases. Aims: To estimate and compare the age (9–18 years) by dental and skeletal maturity in the Mumbai region. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 cases from 9 to 18 years of age were studied in 1 year in the urban population of the Mumbai region. Among 70 cases, 45 were males and 25 were females. Orthopantomogram and elbow joint radiographs were taken to assess the dental age through modified Demirjian's method and the radiological age through Sangma et al. staging method, respectively. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics Version 26; descriptive statistics and regression statistics were used in the study. Results: Dental age by Demirjian's method in males with standard deviation was 15.25 (2.17), with a mean difference of 1.08 and significant P = 0.03. However, in females, dental age by Demirjian's method with standard deviation was 14.30 (1.94) with a mean difference of 0.74 and insignificant P = 0.07. Interclass correlation coefficient of dental age with chronological age, in males and females, showed 0.85 and 0.87 correlation, respectively. Correlation between the skeletal maturity and the dental age was reflected by the association of Demirjian stage 9 in the second molar with radiological stage 5 in males and stage 4 in females. Conclusions: It was concluded that Demirjian's method shows a significant correlation and P value for the age estimation in males of the Mumbai region.
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Determination of epigenetic age through DNA methylation of NPTX2 gene using buccal scrapes: A pilot study p. 147
Nawal Khan, Radhika M Bavle, Soumya Makarla, Paremala Konda, SR Amulya, Sreenitha S Hosthor
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_29_19  
Context: DNA methylation (DNAm) age can be used to evaluate the chronological age of individuals often called “epigenetic age.” In this study, buccal scrape samples were used for the determination of epigenetic age. Aims: To examine if epigenetic age could be determined using neuronal pentraxin 2 (NPTX2) gene in buccal cells. Setting and Design: This cohort study was designed to validate the use of buccal cells for epigenetic age estimation. Sanger sequencing was used to determine the genetic sequence of the gene of interest postamplification. Nucleotide base sequence for NPTX2 gene was obtained for each case using this protocol. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted on buccal scrapes obtained from 26 subjects of both genders, whose age varied from 1 to 65 years. The samples, collected by wooden spatulas, were placed in cell suspension buffer and stored at 4°C until transported to the laboratory. Results: Methylation levels of 5'-C-phosphate-G-3' located in the gene NPTX2 of 26 subjects were studied and analyzed by bisulfate sequencing. The percentage of methylation in this study falls in the range between 15% and 51%. Conclusion: In this study, a sufficient amount of gDNA was retrieved from the buccal cells, thus confirming that buccal scrape was a feasible technique to obtain ample DNA. This study also showed that DNAm-polymerase chain reaction method was a feasible method for the evaluation of methylation pattern of NPTX2 gene.
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Cone-beam computed tomography a reliable tool for morphometric analysis of the foramen magnum and a boon for forensic odontologists p. 153
Subhasish Mustafi, Rupam Sinha, Debarati Roy, Suman Sen, Subhadeep Maity, Pritha Ghosh
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_42_19  
Background/Aim: The aim of this pilot study was to perform morphometric analysis of the foramen magnum (FM) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: This study included CBCT images of 120 individuals (60 males and 60 females). The sagittal and transverse diameters and circumference of the FM were measured. The data were statistically analyzed with Chi-square and t-tests to assess the level of significance for sex and age. Results: The means of its sagittal and transverse diameters and also circumference were higher in males than in females. Statistically significant differences were found between transverse and circumference in case of males and females for all variables (P < 0.05). No statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) was found in sagittal diameter and age groups for all variables. Conclusion: CBCT images can provide valuable information regarding FM and the measurements of its sagittal and transvers diameters and also its circumference may be reliably used for sexual dimorphism in anthropometric analysis and forensic medicine.
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Sexual dimorphism through the study of atlas vertebra in the Brazilian population p. 158
Larissa Padovan, Viviane Ulbricht, Francisco Carlos Groppo, João Sarmento Pereira Neto, Vanessa Moreira Andrade, Luiz Francesquini Júnior
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_85_19  
Background: Sex determination by linear measurements of the bones is widely used because of the several kinds of death in which the corpses can be damaged. Aim: The aim of this study was to establish a logit for sexual dimorphism through measurements of the atlas vertebra. Settings and Design: The principle sample was composed of 191 skeletons belonging to the Forensic Physical Anthropology Laboratory Prof. Eduardo Daruge. However, first, a calibration with other 25 skeletons was carried out. Materials and Methods: Using a digital caliper, linear measurements were made of the anteroposterior diameter of the atlas vertebra (variable A), anteroposterior diameter of the rachidian canal (variable B), transverse diameter of the rachidian canal (variable C), and maximum transverse diameter of the atlas vertebra (variable D). Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using IBM® SPSS® 25 Statistics program. Results: The mean measurements of all four variables for men were higher than that for women, being observed that variable D obtained the major discrepancy between the sexes. Considering both sexes, the variable C obtained the best results of standard deviation, while the variable D achieved the worse results. The t-test observed acceptance about hypothesis that exists differences between the gender and all four measures assessed. The logit developed is sex = −24.970 + 0.183 × A + 0.230 × D, in which “A” represents anteroposterior diameter of the atlas and “D” represents the maximum transverse diameter of the atlas. Conclusion: This model results in 81.2% accuracy, 85.5% sensitivity, and 75.3% specificity.
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Cheiloscopy and dermatoglyphics as screening tools for type 2 diabetes mellitus p. 163
Nadeem Jeddy, T Radhika, LJ Sai Lakshmi, Rachel J Khodabux, R Srilekha, G Sruthi
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_87_19  
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of cheiloscopy (the study of lip prints) and dermatoglyphics (the study of fingerprints) in screening diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 100 individuals in the age group of 17–60 years, of which fifty were diabetics and fifty controls who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital. Lip prints were collected and categorized based on the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi system. Fingerprint patterns were obtained and classified according to the Henry's system of classification. Results: Type II and IV lip print patterns were predominant in diabetic patients and Type I lip print patterns in controls. The difference was statistically significant. There was no significant difference in fingerprint patterns between the study groups. Gender-wise analysis for lip print and fingerprint patterns did not yield significant results. Conclusion: Cheiloscopy is a potential screening tool for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dermatoglyphics cannot be used as a screening tool in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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COMMENTARY Top

Reflections on setting up forensic odontology department, its activities, and faculty p. 167
Ashith B Acharya
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.285791  
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