Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-April 2017
Volume 9 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-48

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Morphometric analysis of mandibular ramus for sex determination on digital orthopantomogram p. 1
Chandramani Bhagwan More, Ritika Vijayvargiya, Nairita Saha
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_25_15  PMID:28584466
Background: Identification of sex from skeletal remains is an important tool in forensic science. Mandibular ramus can be used for sex determination either on dry mandible or through orthopantomogram (OPG). Aim: To determine the sex from mandibular ramus using digital OPG. Materials and Methods: The morphometric analysis was conducted on mandibular ramus of 1000 digital OPG using Kodak Master View version 4.3 software. Statistical analysis was performed, and independent t-test and discriminant function were applied. Results: The participants' age ranged from 21–60 years with an equal number of males and females. The mean dimensions of all parameters for ramus were higher in males and highly significant (P < 0.001). The total mean length of minimum and maximum ramus breadth was 27.44 ± 3.41 mm and 32.27 ± 3.40 mm, respectively. The maximum and projective ramus height was 71.78 ± 5.98 mm and 65.62 ± 6.19 mm, respectively. The coronoid height was 59.23 ± 6.08 mm. The correlation of gender with morphology of mandibular ramus was significant (P < 0.05). The overall accuracy for diagnosing sex was 69%, whereas for diagnosing male and female, the accuracy was 68% and 70%, respectively. Conclusion: Measurements of mandibular ramus using OPG are helpful in sex determination.
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The credibility of dental pulp in human blood group identification p. 6
Vrinda Saxena, Manish Jain, Vidhatri Tiwari, Binu Santha, Anshika Khare, Ravikant Shah
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.206477  PMID:28584467
Background: The identification of unknown individual has always been of paramount importance to the society. Blood groups are excellent aids to these pursuits. Dental tissue acts beneficial because tooth is the hardest of all human tissues, and they can be preserved intact for a long period of time after the death of the individual. Hence, this study is conducted to evaluate the role of dental pulp in identification of human blood group. Aim: To determine the ABO blood grouping from the pulpal tissue of an extracted tooth and to correlate the same with blood group details obtained from the study subjects. Materials and Methods: This is a double-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted on a sample of thirty extracted teeth. The teeth were stored dry for 2 months. An attempt to establish the blood group from pulp was made by absorption-elution method. The collected data were coded, and statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS Version 20). Cronbach's alpha was applied to check the reliability of the absorption-elusion method in the detection of blood group from dental pulp. Results: Blood groups obtained from the pulp were compared with those obtained from the study subjects. Blood group establishment from dental pulp using absorption-elusion method had a good internal consistency in comparison with the conventional Karl Landsteiner's blood typing method. This study showed that pulp tissue is a reliable method to detect blood groups of individuals. Conclusion: It can be concluded that dental pulp can be used to establish identity, where teeth happen to be the only remnants available for personal identification.
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Determination of age, sex, and blood group from a single tooth p. 10
Amit K Nayar, Swati Parhar, Gagandeep Thind, Aman Sharma, Divya Sharma
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_33_15  PMID:28584468
Background: Human identification is one of the most challenging subjects that human has been confronted with. Through the ages, odontological examinations have been a critical determinant in the search of human identity. Data in the form of age, gender, and blood group might provide vital clues in such investigations. In the recent times, it has been often desirable to preserve tissues for further investigations following the unfolding of certain events or discovery of new data. Hence, it is important to gather as much data as possible using less tissue. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine age, sex, and ABO blood group of individual from a single tooth, to determine the effect of different environmental conditions, and to extract maximum information also at the same time preserving some tissue for the further investigation whenever needed. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of sixty teeth divided into four groups under different environmental conditions and time. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally in the buccolingual plane along the midline. Longitudinal ground sections of each tooth were prepared for age determination from cemental lines. Pulp removed was divided into two halves thereafter sex and blood group was determined. Statistical Analysis: For correlation of age between estimated age and actual age, using cemental lines Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied. Further for determination of both sex and blood group between groups, Chi-square test was applied. Results: A strong positive correlation was found between the estimated age and actual age of the study groups. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the actual and determined sex and blood group of the study groups. Conclusion: Although age, sex, and blood group are more reliably determined in freshly extracted teeth, these variables may be of significant help in identification even after a period of 6 weeks postextraction.
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Pattern self-repetition of fingerprints, lip prints, and palatal rugae among three generations of family: A forensic approach to identify family hierarchy p. 15
Sankeerti Mala, Vanita Rathod, Siddharth Pundir, Sudhanshu Dixit
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_115_15  PMID:28584469
Context: The unique pattern and structural diversity of fingerprints, lip prints, palatal rugae, and their occurrence in different patterns among individuals make it questionable whether they are completely unique even in a family hierarchy? Do they have any repetition of the patterns among the generations? Or is this a mere chaos theory? Aims: The present study aims to assess the pattern self-repetition of fingerprints, lip prints, and palatal rugae among three generations of ten different families. Settings and Design: The present study was conducted at Rungta College of Dental Science and Research, Bhilai, India. Participants birth by origin of Chhattisgarh were only included in the study. Subjects and Methods: Thirty participants from three consecutive generations of ten different families were briefed about the purpose of the study, and their fingerprints, lip prints, and palatal rugae impression were recorded and analyzed for the pattern of self-repetition. Statistical Analysis Used: Multiple comparisons among the generations and one-way analysis of variance test were performed using SPSS 20 trial version. Results: Among the pattern of primary palatal rugae, 10% showed repetition in all the three generations. Thirty percent showed repetition of the pattern of thumb fingerprints in all the three generation. The pattern of lip prints in the middle 1/3rd of lower lip, 20% showed repetition in alternative generations. Conclusions: The evaluations of fingerprints, lip prints, and palatal rugae showed fractal dimensions, occurring variations in dimensions according to the complexity of each structure. Even though a minute self-repetition in the patterns of lip, thumb, and palate among the three consequent generations in a family was observed considering the sample size, these results need to be confirmed in a larger sample, either to establish the role of chaos theory in forensic science or identifying a particular pattern of the individual in his family hierarchy.
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Denture identification using individual national identification number of Saudi Arabia: An innovative inclusion method of casted metal p. 20
Atul Bhardwaj, MS Priya, S Karthiga Kannan, Smita Singh, Saquib B Ahmed Shaikh, Mousa Abu Fadaleh
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.206484  PMID:28584470
Context: Forensic odontology is one of the branches of dentistry, which played a very important role in identification of individuals in accident, natural and mass disaster, and civil unrest and in genocide crimes. In the absence of natural teeth, marking or labeling of denture plays a vital role in the personal identification. Background: Various types of marking or labeling methods are reported. However, many are not according to the criteria put forth by American Dental Association or other professional association. Majority of these techniques may be time consuming and expansive, may not be standardized, long lasting and do not permit the incorporation of a large amount of information. Aim: The aim of this study is to find out a denture identification technique that should be easy, less expensive, long lasting, and standardized. Materials and Methods: This article illustrates an inclusion denture casted metal technique of the individual national identification number printed in the patient's residence number or iquama or national identity card issued by the ministry of interior, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is used as a denture marker in the lingual surface of mandibular denture. Results: The label in this method is durable and can withstand high temperature, less chances of deterioration, visible radiographically, and provide all important information about individual that is standardized, reliable, and also accessible from any remote location. Conclusion: Hence, the proposed technique is an easy, less expensive, long lasting, radiographically visible, and standardized method of identification.
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Child maltreatment: Cross-sectional survey of general dentists p. 24
Harsimran Kaur, KS Vinod, Harpreet Singh, Lavina Arya, Prateek Verma, Baldeep Singh
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_6_15  PMID:28584471
Background: Child abuse continues to be a social menace causing both physical and emotional trauma to benevolent children. Census has shown that nearly 50–75% of child abuse include trauma to mouth, face, and head. Thus, dental professionals are in a strategic position to identify physical and emotional manifestations of abuse. Aim: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess knowledge and attitude of dental professionals on the exigent issue of child abuse. Methodology: With prior consent, a 20-question survey including both multiple choice and dichotomous (yes/no) questions was mailed to 120 state-registered general dentists and the data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis: The overall response rate to the questionnaires was 97%. Lack of knowledge about dentist role in reporting child abuse accounted to 55% in the reasons for hesitancy to report. Pearson's Chi-square test did not show any significant difference between male and female regarding the reason for hesitancy to report and legal obligation of dentists. Results: Although respondent dentists were aware of the diagnosis of child abuse, they were hesitant and unaware of the appropriate authority to report. Conclusion: Increased instruction in the areas of recognition and reporting of child abuse and neglect should be emphasized.
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Radiographic anthropometric study of frontal sinus for sex determination in Benin city, South-South Nigeria p. 31
Dennis Erhisenebe O Eboh, Osesogie U Ogbeide, Theophilus Ivwighren
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_40_16  PMID:28584472
Context: The frontal sinuses are situated in the frontal bone between the outer and inner plates of the bone. A good knowledge on dimensions is relevant for successful surgery. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the dimorphic potential of the frontal sinuses and to ascertain the accuracy in sex determination using the logistic regression model among Edo people of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: It was a 7 years retrospective study on the Edo, utilizing posterior-anterior radiographs of frontal sinuses in University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The right and left frontal sinus heights and widths were measured in centimeter. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using independent samples t-test and logistic regression with the aid of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: All dimensions were higher in males than in females, wherein the the left side height and width were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Left side frontal sinus width gave the highest accuracy of 60% in sex determination using logit regression. Conclusion: The dimorphic nature of the left dimensions has implications for human identification.
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Laser micro-etching of metal prostheses for personal identification p. 36
Dhanraj Ganapathy, Vinay Sivaswamy, Prathap Sekhar
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.206493  PMID:28584473
Denture marking techniques play a vital role in establishing personal identification in suitable clinical and forensic situations. The denture marking techniques are categorized broadly into additive and ablative methods. Additive methods involve embedding or impregnation of markers for establishing personal identity. Ablative methods involve partial removal of the denture surface thereby providing a marking for identification. Engraving and etching methods are the commonly used ablative methods. Ablative methods can be of contact and noncontact subtypes. Laser micro-etching is a precise noncontact ablative denture marking technique that could be used for prostheses-guided personal identification.
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Does the periodontal status of peg-shaped mandibular central incisor affect its prognosis? p. 41
Saravana Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Mahalaxmi Sekar, Divya Vinayachandran, Velmurugan Natanasabapathy
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_5_17  PMID:28584474
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Virtopsy: Touch-free autopsy p. 42
Raj Kumar Badam, Triekan Sownetha, D B. Gandhi Babu, Shefali Waghray, Lavanya Reddy, Komali Garlapati, Sunanda Chavva
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_7_16  PMID:28584475
The word “autopsy” denotes “to see with own eyes.” Autopsy (postmortem) is a process that includes a thorough examination of a corpse noting everything related to anatomization, surface wounds, histological and culture studies. Virtopsy is a term extracted from two words “virtual” and “autopsy.” It employs imaging methods that are routinely used in clinical medicine such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the field of autopsy, to find the reason for death. Virtopsy is a multi-disciplinary technology that combines forensic medicine and pathology, roentgenology, computer graphics, biomechanics, and physics. It is rapidly gaining importance in the field of forensics. This approach has been recently used by forensic odontologists, but yet to make its own mark in the field. This article mainly deals with “virtopsy” where in various articles were web searched, relevant data was selected, extracted, and summarized here.
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Age estimation by dentin translucency measurement using digital method: An institutional study p. 42
Shalini Gupta, Akhilesh Chandra, Archana Agnihotri, Om Prakash Gupta, Niharika Maurya
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_76_14  PMID:28584476
Aims: The aims of the present study were to measure translucency on sectioned teeth using available computer hardware and software, to correlate dimensions of root dentin translucency with age, and to assess whether translucency is reliable for age estimation. Materials and Methods: A pilot study was done on 62 freshly extracted single-rooted permanent teeth from 62 different individuals (35 males and 27 females) and their 250 μm thick sections were prepared by micromotor, carborundum disks, and Arkansas stone. Each tooth section was scanned and the images were opened in the Adobe Photoshop software. Measurement of root dentin translucency (TD length) was done on the scanned image by placing two guides (A and B) along the x-axis of ABFO NO. 2 scale. Unpaired t-test, regression analysis, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used as statistical tools. Results: A linear relationship was observed between TD length and age in the regression analysis. The Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was positive correlation (r = 0.52, P= 0.0001) between TD length and age. However, no significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed in the TD length between male (8.44 ± 2.92 mm) and female (7.80 ± 2.79 mm) samples. Conclusion: Translucency of the root dentin increases with age and it can be used as a reliable parameter for the age estimation. The method used here to digitally select and measure translucent root dentin is more refined, better correlated to age, and produce superior age estimation.
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Dental sex dimorphism: Using odontometrics and digital jaw radiography p. 43
B N. V. S Satish, Chanchal Moolrajani, Maharudrappa Basnaker, Prashant Kumar
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_78_15  PMID:28584477
Context: Estimating the gender from the human skeletal remains can guide the forensic investigator in revealing the missing person's identity. Aims: (1) To determine the utility of the various parameters taken on the orthopantomographs (mandible) and of odontometrics on tooth remains to estimate the gender. (2) To determine the most dimorphic parameter taken on the radiograph as well as tooth (odontometrics) in the study taken. Study and Design: (1) A retrospective study was planned on 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) in the age group of 18–30 years and the following parameters (maximum ramus height, bigonion width, and bicondylar breadth) were measured on the orthopantomograph. (2) A prospective clinical study was planned on 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) in the age group of 18–30 years, to measure the mesio-distal width of permanent maxillary central incisors and canines directly in the patient's mouth, using Digital Vernier calipers. Statistical Analysis Used: The mean, range, and standard deviation were calculated for each variable in the study. The Z-score test was done to find out the magnitude of sexual dimorphism for each parameter in each part of the study. Results: Maximum ramus height proved to be the most dimorphic parameter depicting the utility of mandible for the estimation of gender of the deceased. Permanent maxillary central incisor proved to be more dimorphic than the maxillary canines, depicting it to be population specific. Conclusion: Measurements taken on the mandible proved to be useful in the estimation of gender of the deceased. In cases of fragmentary or missing mandible, odontometrics can be used. Hence, teeth proved to be an adjunct tool in the determination of gender of the deceased.
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Gender determination using barr bodies from teeth exposed to high temperatures p. 44
A Vikram Simha Reddy, A Ravi Prakash, Lakshmi Keerthana Killampalli, M Rajinikanth, G Sreenath, PB Sabiha
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.206494  PMID:28584478
Context: Gender determination forms a prime step in the forensic identification process. Teeth form a very important identification aid in forensic studies because they are protected by oral tissues and dental pulp is further protected by the mineralized constituents of the teeth. This allows the conservation and sustainable production of dental pulp to help sex determination in circumstances where other tissues cannot be analyzed like victims when exposed to high temperatures during fire accidents, explosions, and other mass disasters. Aim: The present study aimed at gender determination from pulpal tissue extirpated from teeth exposed to high temperatures. Materials and Methodology: The study consisted of sixty teeth samples, thirty male and thirty female. The teeth have been subjected to a series of temperatures of 37°C, 100°C, 200°C, 300°C, 400°C, 500°C, 600°C, 800°C, and 1000°C. The dental pulp is then obtained from these teeth, processed, stained, and checked for Barr bodies. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis has been used. Results: The results showed that pulp from the female teeth showed the presence of Barr bodies up to a maximum of 400°C, whereas the male pulpal tissue did not show the presence of any Barr bodies. With increase in temperatures, the cellularity of the connective tissue decreased but the average number of Barr body positive cells remained constant within the range of 19–20. Conclusions: Dental pulp acts as a potential source of gender determination when no other means of identification are available.
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Gender determination by odontometric method p. 44
Litha , HC Girish, Sanjay Murgod, JK Savita
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_96_15  PMID:28584479
Context: Gender determination is central in establishing personal identification from human skeletal remains. The study was conducted to find out the accuracy with which gender can be determined by odontometric methods. Aims: To investigate the mesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual (BL) dimensions of all the teeth of permanent dentition to find new parameters to differentiate between male and female teeth and to assess whether each type of linear measurement can be used independently in odontometric sex differentiation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at a dental college on a composite group of 500 individuals comprising 250 males and 250 females. Impressions of upper and lower jaws were made with alginate impression material and casts prepared with dental stone. A digital Vernier calliper was used to measure the BL and MD dimensions of all the upper teeth except the third molars. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were subjected to statistical analysis using univariate analysis and linear stepwise discriminant function analysis to find the variables which discriminate gender significantly. Results: The MD and BL dimensions between males and females were statistically significant. The predicted value for correct classification of gender was also statistically significant. Conclusions: The ability to differentiate gender in the population using stepwise discriminant functions was found to be very high with 99.8% accuracy with males showing statistically larger teeth than females. This is similar to the near 100% success in gender determination using pelvic and skull bones.
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Assessment of Demirjian's 8-teeth technique of age estimation and Indian-specific formulas in an East Indian population: A cross-sectional study p. 45
Hemamalini Rath, Rachna Rath, Sandeep Mahapatra, Tribikram Debta
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_84_15  PMID:28584480
Background: The age of an individual can be assessed by a plethora of widely available tooth-based techniques, among which radiological methods prevail. The Demirjian's technique of age assessment based on tooth development stages has been extensively investigated in different populations of the world. Aim: The present study is to assess the applicability of Demirjian's modified 8-teeth technique in age estimation of population of East India (Odisha), utilizing Acharya's Indian-specific cubic functions. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six pretreatment orthodontic radiographs of patients in an age group of 7–23 years with representation from both genders were assessed for eight left mandibular teeth and scored as per the Demirjian's 9-stage criteria for teeth development stages. Age was calculated on the basis of Acharya's Indian formula. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the estimated and actual age. All data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) and MS Excel Package. Results: The results revealed that the mean absolute error (MAE) in age estimation of the entire sample was 1.3 years with 50% of the cases having an error rate within ± 1 year. The MAE in males and females (7–16 years) was 1.8 and 1.5, respectively. Likewise, the MAE in males and females (16.1–23 years) was 1.1 and 1.3, respectively. Conclusion: The low error rate in estimating age justifies the application of this modified technique and Acharya's Indian formulas in the present East Indian population.
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Age and gender assessment through three-dimensional morphometric analysis of maxillary sinus using magnetic resonance imaging p. 46
Sanda Usha Rani, Guttikonda Venkateswara Rao, Dumpala Rakesh Kumar, Taneeru Sravya, Yeluri Sivaranjani, Manchikatla Praveen Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.206481  PMID:28584482
Background: Age and sex determinations are important tools in forensic odontology which help in the identification of an individual. Radiographic method of sex and age estimation is a noninvasive simple technique. Measurements of the maxillary sinuses can be used for the estimation of age and gender when other methods are inconclusive. Maxillary sinus dimensions were used as an important tool in the identification of unknown. Aim: This study aims to estimate age and sex using the dimensions and volume of the maxillary sinus in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: This study included sixty patients visiting Department of Radiology Mamata General Hospital, Khammam requiring MRI of the brain and paranasal sinuses. Maxillary sinus dimensions were measured using Siemens software, and statistical analysis was done. Results: The volume and dimensions of the maxillary sinus were more in males when compared to the females with a statistically significant difference. The highest percentage of sexual dimorphism was seen in the volume of left maxillary sinus. Age estimated using the volume of maxillary sinus showed no statistically significant difference from the actual age of the subjects. Conclusion: The dimensions and volume of the maxillary sinuses were larger in males than in females, in addition to that they tend to be less with the older age. MRI measurements of maxillary sinuses may be useful to support gender and age estimation in forensic radiology.
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Sex determination efficacy of Papanicolaou and acriflavine Schiff stains in buccal smears p. 46
Tibin Kaithappillil Baby, Priya Thomas, Jayanthi Palani, Rekha Krishna Pillai, Bindhu Pushparajan Ramakrishnan
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.206480  PMID:28584481
Background: Barr body is formed from random inactivation and condensation of one of the two female chromosomes in virtually all the somatic cells of female mammals. Buccal smears have been reported to be potential sources of Barr bodies. Aim: This study was done to assess the efficacy of acriflavine (AF) Schiff and Papanicolaou (PAP) stains in sex determination by identifying Barr bodies in buccal smears of both sexes. Materials and Methods: Two samples of buccal smears, collected from thirty males and thirty females in the age group of 16–60 years were used to demonstrate Barr bodies using AF Schiff and PAP stains, respectively. Hundred cells were examined for Barr body positive nucleus, and its mean percentage was calculated and statistically analyzed. Results: In females, AF Schiff stained positive cells ranged from 16% to 53% and PAP stained positive cells ranged from 9% to 38%. In males, 0–9% AF positive Barr bodies and 0–5% PAP stained Barr bodies were identified. Conclusion: Sex determination using buccal smear is a simple and reliable method. AF Schiff stain is better both qualitatively and quantitatively when compared to PAP stain, thus aids in more accurate sex determination.
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Can dead man tooth do tell tales? Tooth prints in forensic identification p. 47
Vineetha Christopher, Sarvani Murthy, SR Ashwinirani, Kulkarni Prasad, Suragimath Girish, Shashikanth Patil Vinit
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_24_16  PMID:28584483
Background: We know that teeth trouble us a lot when we are alive, but they last longer for thousands of years even after we are dead. Teeth being the strongest and resistant structure are the most significant tool in forensic investigations. Patterns of enamel rod end on the tooth surface are known as tooth prints. Aim: This study is aimed to know whether these tooth prints can become a forensic tool in personal identification such as finger prints. A study has been targeted toward the same. Settings and Design: In the present in-vivo study, acetate peel technique has been used to obtain the replica of enamel rod end patterns. Materials and Methods: Tooth prints of upper first premolars were recorded from 80 individuals after acid etching using cellulose acetate strips. Then, digital images of the tooth prints obtained at two different intervals were subjected to biometric conversion using Verifinger standard software development kit version 6.5 software followed by the use of Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) software for comparison of the tooth prints. Similarly, each individual's finger prints were also recorded and were subjected to the same software. Statistical Analysis: Further, recordings of AFIS scores obtained from images were statistically analyzed using Cronbach's test. Results: We observed that comparing two tooth prints taken from an individual at two intervals exhibited similarity in many cases, with wavy pattern tooth print being the predominant type. However, the same prints showed dissimilarity when compared with other individuals. We also found that most of the individuals with whorl pattern finger print showed wavy pattern tooth print and few loop type fingerprints showed linear pattern of tooth prints. Conclusions: Further more experiments on both tooth prints and finger prints are required in establishing an individual's identity.
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Dental records of forensic odontological importance: Maintenance pattern among dental practitioners of Pune city p. 48
Gargi S Sarode, Sachin C Sarode, Shakira Choudhary, Shankargouda Patil, Rahul Anand, Himadri Vyas
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_1_16  PMID:28584484
Context: Forensic odontology plays a pivotal role in the identification of victims in mass disasters with the help of “Preserved dental records” available with the general dental practitioners (GDPs). However, the status of such dental records of forensic importance has not been studied extensively. Aim: To study the current status of awareness and practice of dental record maintenance by GDPs of Pune. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 randomly selected GDPs from Pune. Data was collected in a personalized manner by means of a questionnaire. Results: Six percent of GDPs do not maintain any records of the patient, 11% of them do not record about developmental dental anomalies, and 22% GDPs do not retain radiographs. Sixty-seven percent GDPs mention about the use of abbreviations while recording history. Only 17% of GDPs record denture marking and 11% take conformity certificate for the denture. Thirty percent GDPs do not mention the serial number of an implant whereas 17% of them do not mention about the prescribed medication. Five percent GDPs handover original dental record to the patient and 91% said that they discard casts and models immediately after treatment. Conclusion: There was inadequate knowledge and lack of practice regarding proper record maintenance among GDPs.
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Palatal rugae pattern: An aid for sex identification p. 48
Prahlad Gadicherla, Divya Saini, Milana Bhaskar
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_108_15  PMID:28584485
Background: Palatal rugoscopy, or palatoscopy, is the process by which human identification can be obtained by inspecting the transverse palatal rugae inside the mouth. Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the potential of using palatal rugae as an aid for sex identification in Bengaluru population. Materials and Methods: One hundred plaster casts equally distributed between males and females belonging to age range of 4–16 years were examined for different rugae patterns. Thomas and Kotze classification was adopted for identification of these rugae patterns. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained were subjected to discriminant function analysis to determine the applicability of palatal rugae pattern as an aid for sex identification. Results: Difference in unification patterns among males and females was found to be statistically significant. No significant difference was found between males and females in terms of number of rugae. Overall, wavy and curvy were the most predominant type of rugae seen. Discriminant function analysis enabled sex identification with an accuracy of 80%. Conclusion: This preliminary study undertaken showed the existence of a distinct pattern of distribution of palatal rugae between males and females of Bengaluru population. This study opens scope for further research with a larger sample size to establish palatal rugae as a valuable tool for sex identification for forensic purposes.
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