Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Study of lip prints
TR Saraswathi, Gauri Mishra, K Ranganathan
January-June 2009, 1(1):28-31
DOI:10.4103/0974-2948.50885  
The external surface of lips has many elevations and depressions forming a characteristic pattern called lip prints, examination of which is known as cheiloscopy. The lip prints are unique and distinguishable for every individual like fingerprints. The use of lip prints for human identification was first suggested in 1950 and researches were carried out in 1960s and early 1970s, resuming in the last few years. The present study was aimed to study the lip prints of different individuals in different parts of the lip and find out the incidence of any particular pattern in the given age group. Although lip prints identification has been utilized in the court in isolated cases, more researches need to be conducted in this field with regards to confirmation of uniqueness, and the collection and interpretation of evidence.
  10 26,920 2,657
Cheiloscopy for sex determination
Shailesh M Gondivkar, Atul Indurkar, Shirish Degwekar, Rahul Bhowate
July-December 2009, 1(2):56-60
DOI:10.4103/0974-2948.60374  
Background: Identification of an individual is a pre-requisite for certification of death and for personal, social and legal reasons. The study of lip-prints (cheiloscopy) was thought of as a method of identification of a person. It is safe to assume that cheiloscopy, in its present stage of development, has become a means of criminalistic identification dealing with lip-prints. Objective: The objective of the study was to check for any peculiar lip patterns in relation to the sex of the individual and determine the most common lip patterns in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 140 subjects, which included 70 males and 70 females, in the age group of 0-70 years. After applying lip stick evenly, the lip-print of each subject was obtained on a simple bond paper by researcher number 1. The lip-print was then analyzed and interpreted by researcher number 2 to determine the sex of individuals. Results: We found that 67 of the actual 70 lip-prints of females were correctly identified and 65 of the 70 males were correctly diagnosed as males. Type C (47.14%) was the most commonly occurring trend in females whereas Type B (70%) was the most commonly occurring trend in males. Conclusion: Along with other traditional methods, cheiloscopy can also serve as very important tool in the identification of a person based on the characteristic arrangement of lines appearing on the red part of the lips.
  9 10,095 1,772
Use of frontal sinus and nasal septum patterns as an aid in personal identification: A digital radiographic pilot study
Maria Priscilla David, Runjhun Saxena
July-December 2010, 2(2):77-80
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.81286  PMID:21731344
Objectives: To examine and classify the variations in the pattern of frontal sinus and nasal septum as observed on the posterior anterior Cephalometric radiographs, and to propose the possible use of the same in personal identification. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 50 individuals visiting the department, whose age ranged from 25 to 50 years. The radiographs of 25 males and 25 females were recorded using a Kodak 8000 C and Dental Imaging Software Viewer 6.3.4. Frontal sinus (symmetry and lobulations) and nasal septum patterns (deviations) were observed and classified. Results: Frontal sinus symmetry was observed in 29 (58%) individuals and asymmetry was observed in 16 (32%). Frontal sinuses were absent (bilateral aplasia) in two individuals (4%). Unilateral aplasia was seen in three individuals (6%). Straight nasal septum was seen in 11 (22%), right deviation in 21 (42%), and left deviation in 15 (30%) individuals. Sigmoid was seen in one male (2%), reverse sigmoid in one male (2%), and other pattern type in one female (2%). Both frontal sinus and nasal septum patterns were assessed together for each individual. Out of 50 individuals, 41 unique combinations of frontal sinus and nasal septum were found. However, there were nine individuals whose patterns matched one of the patterns of the 41 individuals. Conclusion: We observed that the frontal sinus and nasal septum patterns had considerable individual variation. A combined use of both the patterns, as observed on the radiographs, could serve as an adjunct to other methods of personal identification.
  9 4,152 691
Palatal rugoscopy: Establishing identity
Aparna Paliwal, Sangeeta Wanjari, Rajkumar Parwani
January-June 2010, 2(1):27-31
DOI:10.4103/0974-2948.71054  PMID:21189987
Palatal rugae are irregular, asymmetric ridges of the mucous membrane extending laterally from the incisive papilla and the anterior part of the palatal raphe. The uniqueness and the overall stability of palatal rugae suggest their use for forensic identification. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the palatal rugae patterns in 2 different populations in India (Madhya Pradesh and Kerala), and furthermore, to assess the predominant pattern if any in the selected groups. Materials and Methods: 60 maxillary study models (30 from each group) were examined in the age group ranging from 17 to 23 years. Palatal rugae pattern were examined in both the sexes on right and left sides of the palate for the total number (quantitative), length, shape, and predominant direction (qualitative). Results: After analyzing the rugae patterns in both the groups and between the 2 sides of the palate, the wavy pattern was found to be predominant followed by curved, straight, unification, circular, and nonspecific in decreasing order in the overall population. Conclusion: Straight rugae pattern on the right side of the palate in the male subjects was found to be significantly predominant in the MP population, whereas wavy shape was predominant in Keralites; however, rugae patterns on the right side of the palate in female subjects exhibited no significant difference.
  7 6,642 1,154
Importance of palatal rugae in individual identification
Shriram C Bansode, Meena M Kulkarni
July-December 2009, 1(2):77-81
DOI:10.4103/0974-2948.60378  
Background: Rugae are anatomical folds or wrinkles, the irregular fibrous connective tissue located on the anterior third of the palate, behind the incisive papilla. They are also called 'plica palatine.' These rugae patterns are studied for various purposes, mainly in the fields of anthropology, genetics, orthodontics, prosthodontics, and forensic science. Objective: To determine the stability of the palatal rugae during fixed orthodontic treatment and to verify the accuracy rate of identification by comparing the rugae patterns on preoperative and postoperative orthodontic casts. Materials and Methods: Thirty preoperative and postoperative dental casts were selected. Thirty casts were randomly selected for the present study. The postoperative and the randomly selected casts were trimmed so that all areas except the rugae area of the hard palate were removed. The 30 postoperative casts were mixed with the 30 randomly selected casts. Thirteen examiners were selected as evaluators. They were instructed to match the 30 preoperative dental casts with the 60 dental casts (30 postoperative and 30 randomly selected casts). The case numbers of those that were correctly matched were noted. Results: During fixed orthodontic treatment, dental changes and sometimes bony changes occurred, but no changes occurred in the rugae pattern. The 13 examiners achieved 90% correct matches, which is the median in the present study. We used kappa statistics to assess the agreement between evaluators for matching preoperative with postoperative casts. Conclusion: Palatal rugae patterns are unique to an individual, and can therefore be used for individual identification in forensic odontology.
  6 13,913 1,926
Cheiloscopy : An aid for personal identification
Rashmi Venkatesh, Maria Priscilla David
July-December 2011, 3(2):67-70
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.92147  PMID:22408323
Aim: Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation technique that deals with identification of humans based on lips traces. The aim of this study is to establish the uniqueness of lip prints which aids in personal identification. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 200 subjects.The materials used were dark-colored lipstick, paper, cellophane tape, a brush, and a magnifying lens. Results: This study shows that lip prints are unique and permanent for each individual, and the lip prints among family members and between twins revealed different patterns on the whole with few similar grooves suggesting the existence of heredity in the lip prints. Conclusion: Our study showed that lip prints are unique to each individual and can be used for personal identification.
  6 5,752 824
Age estimation using pulp/tooth area ratio: A digital image analysis
Sasidhar Singaraju, P Sharada
January-June 2009, 1(1):37-41
DOI:10.4103/0974-2948.50888  
Age is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of the person. Estimation of the human age is a procedure adopted by anthropologists, archeologists, and forensic scientists. Inspection of radiographs and subsequent comparison with radiographic images, in charts yield 'maturity scores' that help us to assess the age of an individual. Alternative approaches based on digitalization of panoramic radiographs and their computerized storage have recently become available that exploit image analysis to obtain nondestructive metric measurements of both pulp chambers and teeth, which can be used to assess the age of an individual. The purpose of the present study was to present a method for assessing the chronological age based on the relationship between age and measurement of the pulp/tooth area ratio on single-rooted teeth, using orthopantomographs and a computer-aided drafting program AutoCAD 2000.
  5 8,867 2,266
Effects of high temperature on different restorations in forensic identification: Dental samples and mandible
Kalpana A Patidar, Rajkumar Parwani, Sangeeta Wanjari
January-June 2010, 2(1):37-43
DOI:10.4103/0974-2948.71056  PMID:21189989
Introduction: The forensic odontologist strives to utilize the charred human dentition throughout each stage of dental evaluation, and restorations are as unique as fingerprints and their radiographic morphology as well as the types of filling materials are often the main feature for identification. The knowledge of detecting residual restorative material and composition of unrecovered adjacent restoration is a valuable tool-mark in the presumptive identification of the dentition of a burned victim. Gold, silver amalgam, silicate restoration, and so on, have a different resistance to prolonged high temperature, therefore, the identification of burned bodies can be correlated with adequate qualities and quantities of the traces. Most of the dental examination relies heavily on the presence of the restoration as well as the relationship of one dental structure to another. This greatly narrows the research for the final identification that is based on postmortem data. Aim: The purpose of this study is to examine the resistance of teeth and different restorative materials, and the mandible, to variable temperature and duration, for the purpose of identification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 72 extracted teeth which were divided into six goups of 12 teeth each based on the type of restorative material. (Group 1 - unrestored teeth, group 2 - teeth restored with Zn 3 (Po 4 ) 2 , group 3 - with silver amalgam, group 4 with glass ionomer cement, group 5 - Ni-Cr-metal crown, group 6 - metal ceramic crown) and two specimens of the mandible. The effect of incineration at 400°C (5 mins, 15 mins, 30 mins) and 1100°C (15 mins) was studied. Results: Damage to the teeth subjected to variable temperatures and time can be categorized as intact (no damage), scorched (superficially parched and discolored), charred (reduced to carbon by incomplete combustion) and incinerated (burned to ashes).
  4 5,982 761
Patterns - "A crime solver"
A Nagasupriya, Raghu Dhanapal, K Reena, TR Saraswathi, CR Ramachandran
January-June 2011, 3(1):3-7
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.85282  PMID:22022131
Objective: This study is intended to analyze the predominant pattern of lip and finger prints in males and females and to correlate lip print and finger print for gender identity. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised of 200 students of Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, 100 males and 100 females aged between 18 to 27 years. Brown/pink colored lip stick was applied on the lips and the subject was asked to spread it uniformly over the lips. Lip prints were traced in the normal rest position of the lips with the help of cellophane tape. The imprint of the left thumb was taken on a white chart sheet and visualized using magnifying lens. While three main types of finger prints are identified, the classification of lip prints is simplified into branched, reticular, and vertical types. Association between lip prints and finger prints was statistically tested using Chi-square test. Results: This study showed that lip and finger patterns did not reveal statistically significant results within the gender. The correlation between lip and finger patterns for gender identification, was statistically significant. In males, branched type of lip pattern associated with arch, loop, and whorl type of finger pattern was most significant. In females, vertical lip pattern associated with arch finger pattern and reticular lip pattern associated with whorl finger patterns were most significant. Conclusion: We conclude that a correlative study between the lip print and finger print will be very useful in forensic science for gender identification.
  4 5,690 793
Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender, and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods
Ram Ballabh Upadhyay, Juhi Upadhyay, Pankaj Agrawal, Nirmala N Rao
January-June 2012, 4(1):29-33
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.99160  PMID:23087579
Background: With development and function, the mandibular angle has shown changes in size and shape. A variation in mandibular angle with age, gender, and even the dental status has been observed, which is supported by radiographic and anthropometric studies. Aims: The aim of this study were to evaluate relationship between complete loss of teeth and changes in the gonial angle; the study further intends to evaluate any variation in gonial angle with age and gender. The study intends to assess the reliability and accuracy of age and gender determination using gonial angle as a parameter. Materials and Methods: A total of 185 subjects (91 males; 89 females) were included in the study and were divided into five groups on the basis of the chronological age. Physico-forensic anthropometry and lateral cephalometric methods were used to record the gonial angle. Results: The present study shows a definite decrease in the gonial angle with advancing age, but the intergroup analysis does not follow a significant pattern. The study showed no correlation of gonial angle with gender. However, the study observed a 6 o increase in gonial angle for edentulous subjects. Conclusion: Gonial angle has been used as an adjuvant forensic parameter, but its reliability is questionable, as the mandible does not follow one characteristic pattern. Gonial angle does show changes with dentition status, which may be attributed to physiologic function of the mandible. However, when evidence is scanty, it can be used to direct the investigation.
  4 6,119 729
Age estimation using maxillary central incisors: A radiographic study
Nitin Agarwal, Parul Ahuja, Abhishek Sinha, Anil Singh
July-December 2012, 4(2):97-100
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.109897  PMID:23741151
Background: In the field of forensic dentistry, secondary changes in teeth with advancing age have been used as reliable predictors of age in various studies. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to present a method for assessing the chronological age based on the relationship between age and morphological parameters of maxillary central incisors. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects between 20-70 years of age were included in the study. Intraoral periapical radiographs were taken in relation to maxillary central incisors using paralleling technique. The following measurements were recorded: lengths of tooth, pulp, root and width of root and pulp at three different points. Regression formulas were used to calculate the dental age. Results: The mean estimated age showed no statistically significant difference from the actual mean age (P > 0.05). Also, maximum difference was seen for root length variable (-1.035 ± 1.86 years).
  4 4,144 880
Cheiloscopy: The study of lip prints in sex identification
Preeti Sharma, Susmita Saxena, Vanita Rathod
January-June 2009, 1(1):24-27
DOI:10.4103/0974-2948.50884  
Human identification is a universal process based on scientific principles, mainly involving finger printing. Theory of uniqueness is a strong point used in the analysis of fingerprints to convince the court of law. Likewise, even the lip print is unique of an individual and hence beholds the potential for identification purpose. Thus, lip prints can be used to verify the presence or absence of a person at the scene of crime. The wrinkles and grooves on labial mucosa called as sulci labiorum form a characteristic pattern called 'lip prints' and the study of which is referred to as chieloscopy. The study group comprised of 20 females and 20 males. The materials used were lipstick, bond paper, cellophane tape, a brush for applying the lipstick, and a magnifying lens. This study shows that lip prints are unique to an individual and behold the potential for recognition of the sex of an individual.
  4 22,909 2,544
Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of palatal rugae from a population of coastal Andhra
Sreenivasa T Bharath, Govind Raj Kumar, Raghu Dhanapal, TR Saraswathi
July-December 2011, 3(2):58-62
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.92144  PMID:22408321
Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate differences in the palatal rugae patterns in males and females of a cross-sectional hospital-based coastal Andhra population and application of discriminant function analysis in sex identification. Materials and Methods: One hundred pre-orthodontic plaster casts, equally distributed between males and females belonging to an age range of 15-30 years, were examined for different rugae patterns. Thomas classification was adopted for analysis. Association between rugae patterns and sexual dimorphism were tested using Unpaired t test, Chi square test and discriminant function analysis developed using SAS package. Results: Difference in unification pattern among males and females was found to be statistically significant. The total number of the rugae was not statistically significant between the sexes. Association between rugae length and shape with sex determination was computed using discriminant analysis which enabled sex differentiation in this population with an accuracy of 78%. Conclusion: Palatal rugae revealed a specific pattern in unification among males and females of the coastal Andhra population. Discriminant function analysis enabled sex determination of individuals. However, these interpretations were precluded by the small sample size and further research work on larger samples and use of different classification systems is required to validate its use in forensic science.
  4 4,952 709
REVIEW ARTICLES
Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains
KL Girish, Farzan S Rahman, Shoaib R Tippu
July-December 2010, 2(2):63-68
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.81284  PMID:21731342
The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains.
  4 6,991 953
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
An anthropometric analysis of facial height, arch length, and palatal rugae in the Indian and Nepalese population
Shreenivas Kallianpur, Ami Desai, Sowmya Kasetty, US Sudheendra, Prathamesh Joshi
January-June 2011, 3(1):33-37
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.85294  PMID:22022137
Introduction: A country such as India abounds with diverse population groups with distinct anthropometric characteristics. Among these, numerous Nepalese population groups are present in different states of India comprising one of the most common immigrant races. The aim of the study is to compare two distinct races, Indians and Nepalese on the basis of facial height proportions, arch length and palatal rugae patterns and assess their significance in racial identification. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 subjects comprising of 60 Indians and 60 Nepalese were selected, with each group including 30 males and 30 females. Facial heights were measured using sliding digital calipers, arch lengths with the help of a brass wire and rugae patterns were traced on dental casts obtained with alginate impressions. Results: Facial height measurements did not give significant results for racial or gender identification of given races. Differences between arch length parameters were found to be significant between the two population groups. Secondary and fragmentary palatal rugae forms were found to be more common in Nepalese than Indians. Conclusion: The Indian and Nepalese have similar anthropometric characteristics with regard to facial height. However, arch length and palatal rugae characteristics vary between the two races.
  3 5,368 688
Neonatal line as a linear evidence of live birth: Estimation of postnatal survival of a new born from primary tooth germs
Mahija Janardhanan, B Umadethan, KR Biniraj, RB Vinod Kumar, S Rakesh
January-June 2011, 3(1):8-13
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.85284  PMID:22022132
Background: The presence of neonatal line indicates live birth and it is possible to estimate the exact period of survival of the infant in days by measuring the amount of postnatal hard tissue formation, and thus can be an evidence to the brutal act of infanticide. Materials and Methods: Primary tooth germs of both the arches were removed from the sockets of an infant who died few days after birth. Ground sections were made with hard tissue microtome. Decalcified sections were made from the crown of primary right mandibular canine and the sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. To visualize the neonatal line, the sections were subjected to light mocroscopy, polarized microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A developing permanent molar from a one and a half year old boy and ten fully developed deciduous molars were used as controls. Results: The ground sections of all the developing tooth germs showed the presence of neonatal line and the analysis of enamel showed six distinct cross striations along the enamel rod length indicating the period of survival of the baby to be six days which was later confirmed with the hospital records. Conclusion: Neonatal line could be used as an evidence of infanticide. Accurate detection of neonatal line with advanced techniques could rewrite this supplementary evidence of infanticide into substantial evidence.
  3 9,121 524
Reliability of age estimation using Demirjian's 8 teeth method and India specific formula
V Jayanth Kumar, K Saraswathi Gopal
January-June 2011, 3(1):19-22
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.85289  PMID:22022134
Introduction: The estimation of the age of a person has been an archaic exercise, and since decades even dentists have contributed to this science with several methods through radiography. The tooth with its developmental stages provides us with a non-invasive modality to determine the age of the person. Aim: To evaluate the reliability of age estimation using Demirjian's 8 teeth method following the French maturity scores and India specific formula. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 121 archived digital orthopantamographs which were predominantly pre-treatment orthodontic radiographs from patients without any obvious developmental anomalies. The radiographs were divided into two gender specific groups and further sub-divided into two smaller groups of 7-16 years and 16.1-23 years. The radiographs were evaluated as per Demirjian's criteria and age was calculated using the formula developed for the Indian population. Results: The results showed that the mean absolute error for the study sample was 1.18 years; in 57.9% of cases the error rate was within ±1 year. The mean absolute error in males (7-16 years) was 1.2 years; in males (16.1-23 years) was 1.3 years; in females (7-16 years) was 0.95 years and in females (16.1-23 years) was 1.16 years. Conclusion: The age estimation using this method narrows down the error rate to just over one year making this method reliable. However the inclusion of third molar increases the error rates in the older individuals within the sample.
  3 5,527 825
Dimorphism in human maxillary and madibular canines in establishment of gender
Karen Boaz, Chhavi Gupta
January-June 2009, 1(1):42-44
DOI:10.4103/0974-2948.50889  
Sexual dimorphism refers to the differences in size, shape, color, etc. between males and females and is a useful tool to distinguish them, especially in forensic investigations and anthropological assessments. The canines are favoured as ideal teeth to study these differences in view of their durability in the oral cavity. The present study was performed on 100 dental casts of a South Indian population in the age group of 14-20 years in an attempt to assess the dimorphism of human permanent maxillary and mandibular canines and to evaluate the possibility of dimorphism of the canines being used as a valid tool in the forensic and legal identification of an individual. The mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements were subjected to statistical analysis using the t test to determine whether significant differences exist between tooth sizes in males and females. The present study revealed that the mean values of the buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions of the mandibular left canine (33) were greater in females than in males and the mean values of the mesiodistal dimensions of the mandibular right canine (43) in females were greater than that in males in the given sample. The finding could be attributable to evolution resulting in a reduction in sexual dimorphism, causing an overlap of tooth dimensions in modern males and females.
  3 8,326 1,249
Cementum annulations and age determination
Avadhoot Avadhani, JV Tupkari, Alefiya Khambaty, Manisha Sardar
July-December 2009, 1(2):73-76
DOI:10.4103/0974-2948.60377  
Background: Cementum is a hard tissue in the root, which is deposited around dentin in layers throughout life. Under the light microscope, root cementum is seen as alternate light and dark rings known as incremental lines of cementum. In paleontology and forensic medicine, the number of these incremental lines is used to derive the age at death of an individual. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to determine if any relation exists between incremental lines of cementum and age of the individual. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five teeth from patients of known ages and devoid of any pathology such as attrition or hypercementosis were selected for this study. Ground sections were prepared manually. Nineteen of them showed visible countable annulations, while six showed indistinct, invisible annulations and hence were excluded from the study. Half of the selected teeth were sectioned longitudinally and the remainder were cross-sectioned. The mid-root region was selected for counting the annulations. Cemental annulations were counted after taking a photograph and enlarging the mid-root area. Age was then determined by adding the eruption age of the tooth to the annulations counted. Results and Conclusions: It was observed that cemental annulations, when appreciated, can be used as a reliable guide to determine the age of the patient. The age thus determined varied by about 2−3 years from the actual age of the patient. The reliability of the method was found to be 94.73%. There was good interobserver agreement in counting annulations.
  3 6,459 914
Bucco-lingual dimension of teeth - An aid in sex determination
RM Prathibha Rani, VG Mahima, Karthikeya Patil
July-December 2009, 1(2):88-92
DOI:10.4103/0974-2948.60380  
Background: Bucco-lingual (B-L) dimensions of permanent teeth are known to exhibit sexual dimorphism. Objectives: Sexual dimorphism of B-L dimensions is known to be population specific. This study involves the measurement of B-L dimensions of all teeth except third molars of 99 native residents of Mysore district, Karnataka in the age group of 19-30 years. Materials and Methods: The B-L dimensional measurements of 28 teeth, except third molars, of 50 males and 49 females in the age group of 19 to 30 years were made on the study casts using vernier calipers with a resolution of 0.02 mm. The distance between the highest points on the buccal / labial and lingual / palatal surfaces were measured and analyzed using discriminant function analysis. Results: Males showed greater B-L dimensions of teeth in comparison to females with eight maxillary teeth exhibiting statistically significant dimorphism. However, discriminant function analysis showed an overall accuracy of classification of sex of 78%, among which 11 showed maximum dimorphism with a classification accuracy of 70.7% whereas both 23 and 26 showed an accuracy of 66.7%. Conclusion: Application of B-L dimensional variability among males and females in the population of Mysore can aid in sex determination in forensic scenario as the results of this study showed moderate magnitude of dimorphism in maxillary teeth with an accuracy rate of 78%. However, it is recommended to take this odontometric trait into consideration in combination with other skeletal and/or dental traits for sex determination.
  3 9,017 1,250
Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation
Narendra Nath Singh, VR Brave, Shally Khanna
January-June 2010, 2(1):11-17
DOI:10.4103/0974-2948.71051  PMID:21189984
Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Lip prints are genotypically determined and are unique, and stable. At the site of crime, lip prints can be either visible or latent. To develop lip prints for study purpose various chemicals such as lysochrome dyes, fluorescent dyes, etc. are available which are very expensive. Vermilion (Sindoor used by married Indian women) and indigo dye (fabric whitener) are readily available, naturally derived, and cost-effective reagents available in India. Objective: To compare the efficacy of sudan black, vermilion, and indigo in developing visible and latent lip prints made on bone china cup, satin fabric, and cotton fabric. Materials and Methods: Out of 45 Volunteers 15 lip prints were made on bone China cup 15 lip prints on Satin fabric and 15 on Cotton fabric. Sudan black, vermilion and indigo were applied on visible and latent lip prints and graded as good (+,+), fair (+), and poor (-) and statistically evaluated. Results: The vermilion and indigo dye gives comparable results to that of sudan black for developing visible and latent lip prints.
  3 5,963 799
A comparative analysis of root dentin transparency with known age
Anita Singhal, V Ramesh, PD Balamurali
January-June 2010, 2(1):18-21
DOI:10.4103/0974-2948.71052  PMID:21189985
Objective: To correlate dimensions of root transparency and age, and to assess whether transparency is reliable for age estimation of unknown. Materials and Methods: 50 freshly extracted single rooted permanent teeth from 50 different individuals (27 males and 23 females) were collected and their ground sections of 400 ΅m were stained with 1% methylene blue. The area of the translucent zone was measured by superimposing a transparent graph paper on the ground section under stereomicroscope. The length of the translucency was measured by using digital vernier caliper. Results: A strong positive correlation between age and translucency of dentin was noted. The length rather than the area of the translucent zone correlated more with age. Conclusion: Translucency of the root dentin increases with age and it can be used as a reliable parameter for the age estimation.
  3 8,391 675
Radiographic evaluation of dental age of adults using Kvaal's method
Ridhima Sharma, Anurag Srivastava
January-June 2010, 2(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/0974-2948.71053  PMID:21189986
Introduction: It is a well-known fact that the assessment of the dental development can be related to an individual's age, but after the age of 21 years when the wisdom teeth also complete their development, there arises a need for an optimal age estimation procedure. With advancing age, there is a reduction in the size of the pulp due to secondary dentin deposition and a measurement of this reduction can also be used as a parameter to assess the age of the individuals, both in the living and dead. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of this approach in the estimation of age of adults, using Kvaal's method in the set sample. Materials and Methods: The material consisted of the digital long-cone intraoral periapical radiographs from 50 subjects of either sex in the age group of 15-60 years, who were selected after evaluation for the set inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pulp width and length from radiographs of 6 selected teeth, namely, maxillary central incisor, lateral incisor, and second premolar and mandibular lateral incisor, canine, and first premolar of either right or left side were measured using the RVG trophy software [Trophy® Windows is a software program supplied by Trophy Radiologie (Trophy Windows Version 5.03, Copyright 1993-2002,Trophy RVG patented by Trophy, Chicago)]. In order to compensate for the differences in magnification and angulation, various ratios were calculated and the mean of all ratios (M) was taken as the first predictor, while the difference between the mean of 2 width ratios and the mean of 2 length ratios (W − L) was taken as the second predictor. Different regression formulae for all 6 teeth, 3 maxillary teeth, 3 mandibular teeth, and each of the individual teeth were derived and the age was assessed. The assessed age was then co-related with the actual age of the patient using the Student's t test. Results: The results showed that the coefficient of determination (R 2 ) was the strongest (0.198) for the mandibular first premolar indicating that age can be estimated better with this particular tooth. No significant difference was observed between the estimated age and the actual age for all (P>0.05) except in mandibular lateral incisor and maxillary lateral incisor, where a significant difference was observed. Conclusion: To conclude, the results of the present study suggest the feasibility of Kvaal's method for age estimation in the set sample
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Experimental studies of forensic odontology to aid in the identification process
Susmita Saxena, Preeti Sharma, Nitin Gupta
July-December 2010, 2(2):69-76
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.81285  PMID:21731343
The importance of dental identification is on the increase year after year. With the passage of time, the role of forensic odontology has increased as very often teeth and dental restorations are the only means of identification. Forensic odontology has played a key role in identification of persons in mass disasters (aviation, earthquakes, Tsunamis), in crime investigations, in ethnic studies, and in identification of decomposed and disfigured bodies like that of drowned persons, fire victims, and victims of motor vehicle accidents. The various methods employed in forensic odontology include tooth prints, radiographs, photographic study, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy and molecular methods. Investigative methods applied in forensic odontology are reasonably reliable, yet the shortcomings must be accounted for to make it a more meaningful and relevant procedure. This paper gives an overview of the various experimental studies to aid in the identification processes, discussing their feasibilities and limitations in day-to-day practice.
  3 13,773 1,722
Dental records: An overview
BK Charangowda
January-June 2010, 2(1):5-10
DOI:10.4103/0974-2948.71050  PMID:21189983
Dental records consist of documents related to the history of present illness, clinical examination, diagnosis, treatment done, and the prognosis. A thorough knowledge of dental records is essential for the practicing dentist, as it not only has a forensic application, but also a legal implication with respect to insurance and consumerism. This article reviews the importance of dental records in forensics.
  3 8,303 1,039
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