Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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   2012| July-December  | Volume 4 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 1, 2013

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Age estimation using maxillary central incisors: A radiographic study
Nitin Agarwal, Parul Ahuja, Abhishek Sinha, Anil Singh
July-December 2012, 4(2):97-100
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.109897  PMID:23741151
Background: In the field of forensic dentistry, secondary changes in teeth with advancing age have been used as reliable predictors of age in various studies. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to present a method for assessing the chronological age based on the relationship between age and morphological parameters of maxillary central incisors. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects between 20-70 years of age were included in the study. Intraoral periapical radiographs were taken in relation to maxillary central incisors using paralleling technique. The following measurements were recorded: lengths of tooth, pulp, root and width of root and pulp at three different points. Regression formulas were used to calculate the dental age. Results: The mean estimated age showed no statistically significant difference from the actual mean age (P > 0.05). Also, maximum difference was seen for root length variable (-1.035 ± 1.86 years).
  4 4,091 876
Mandibular ramus: An indicator for sex determination - A digital radiographic study
Annamalai Ponnuswamy Indira, Archana Markande, Maria P David
July-December 2012, 4(2):58-62
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.109885  PMID:23741142
Background: The identification of skeletal remains is of paramount importance in medico-legal investigations. The skeletal components most often investigated for gender determination are the pelvis and skull, with the mandible being a practical element to analyze sexual dimorphism in the fragmented bones. Presence of a dense layer of compact bone makes it very durable and well preserved than many other bones. Mandibular ramus can be used to differentiate between sexes and it also expresses strong univariate sexual dimorphism. When skeleton sex determination is considered, metric analyses on the radiographs are often found to be of superior value owing to their objectivity, accuracy, and reproducibility. Aims and Objectives: (1) To measure, compare, and evaluate the various measurements of mandibular ramus as observed on orthopantomographs. (2) To assess the usefulness of mandibular ramus as an aid in sex determination. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using orthopantomographs of 50 males and 50 females, which were taken using Kodak 8000C Digital Panoramic and Cephalometric System (73 kVp, 12 mA, 13.9 s). Mandibular ramus measurements were carried out using Master View 3.0 software. The measurements of the mandibular ramus were subjected to discriminant function analysis. Results: We observed each variable of the mandibular ramus to be a significant predictor in classifying a given sample (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study on mandibular ramus measurements using orthopantomograph shows strong evidence suggesting that the ramus can be used for gender determination for forensic analysis.
  3 7,353 1,250
A study of lip prints among Pondicherry population
G Sathish Kumar, N Vezhavendhan, Priya Vendhan
July-December 2012, 4(2):84-87
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.109894  PMID:23741148
Background: Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation that deals with the examination of the system of furrows on the red part of human lips. Like fingerprint, lip print is also unique for every individual. But most of the crime-detecting agencies are unaware of the importance of lip print and it is not commonly attempted in identification of the suspects. Aim: The aim of the present study is to determine the predominant lip print pattern among Pondicherry population, India, and also to determine its uniqueness. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 60 students (30 males and 30 females), aged from 17 to 25 years, from Pondicherry population, India. A dark-colored lipstick was applied with a single stroke and the students were asked to rub both the lips to spread the applied lipstick, after which a lip print was made on butter paper. The lip print was visualized with magnifying lens. Statistical Analysis: Percentage calculation method was used to identify the predominant lip pattern. One-sample T test was done to identify the statistical significance within the different types of lip pattern with P value <0.05. Results and Conclusion: The present study concludes that every individual has unique lip print and Type III appears to be the most predominant pattern in males, followed by the Type II, Type IV, Type I and Type V patterns. In females, Type II appears to be the most predominant pattern followed by the Type IV, Type I, Type III and Type V patterns.
  2 2,227 371
Sex determination using cheiloscopy and mandibular canine index as a tool in forensic dentistry
Jaspal Singh, Kapil D Gupta, Varun Sardana, Ashwini Y Balappanavar, Garima Malhotra
July-December 2012, 4(2):70-74
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.109889  PMID:23741145
Introduction: Establishment of a person's individuality is important for legal as well as humanitarian purpose and gender determination is an essential step in identifying an individual. In forensic odontology the sum total of all the characteristics of teeth and their associated structures provide a unique totality and forms the basis for personal identification. Aims and Objectives: To investigate the accuracy of various methods employed in sex determination such as cheiloscopy and mandibular canine index (MCI). Materials and Methods: The study group comprises adults between 20 and 25 years of age, who were assessed for gender identification using lip prints and MCI. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: MCI and lip prints were found to be accurate and specific for sex determination. Conclusion: There is scope for use of these methods in criminal investigations, personal identification, and genetic studies. Thus, dental tissues make good witnesses although they speak softly, they never lie and they never forget.
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Palatal rugae in population differentiation between South and North Indians: A discriminant function analysis
Shankar Shanmugam, Krishnamurthy Anuthama, Hidayathulla Shaikh, Kruthika Murali, Vinay Suresan, Khaja Nisharudeen, Sulur Pechimuthu Brinda Devi, Prakash Rajasundaram
July-December 2012, 4(2):75-79
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.109890  PMID:23741146
Aim: The present study is aimed at delineation of different types of rugae in two different populations and developing a discriminant function for the same. Materials and Methods: A total of 940 subjects were included in the present study. The sample consisted of 466 subjects from South Indian population and 474 from North Indian population in the age group of 18-23 years. Neo colloid Easy flow (TM) alginate impressions of maxillary arch were made and casts were immediately poured with Type IV dental stone. A sharp graphite pencil was used to delineate the rugae and patterns were recorded according to the classification given by Kapali et al. The association between different population and different sexes was analyzed with chi-square test and a stepwise discriminant function analysis was also performed to develop a discriminant formula. Results: Wavy, curved and straight rugae were the most common forms in both groups. Chi-square analysis for association between rugae shape and population groups showed significant differences among all the rugae patterns at the P < 5%. Chi-square analysis for assessing sex differences in the rugae shapes showed significant difference in straight, unification and circular type. Five rugae shapes - curved, wavy, nonspecific, unification and circular - were selected for discriminant function. Conclusion: The discriminant function equation obtained from the different rugae shapes in the present study was highly accurate enough to distinguish the Southern and Northern Indian population with the classification accuracy of 87.8%. Thus to identify a specific population, separate discriminant function formulae have to be developed. Hence, the study of palatal rugae is one of the simple and reliable tools for population identification in forensic science.
  1 2,233 302
Canine tooth dimorphism: An adjunct for establishing sex identity
Madhavi Yuwanati, Ashok Karia, Monal Yuwanati
July-December 2012, 4(2):80-83
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.109892  PMID:23741147
Background: Teeth are an excellent material for genetic, odontological and forensic investigations and research purpose. From all the teeth, the mandibular canines are found to exhibit sexual dimorphism. However, very few studies have been published on maxillary canine's measurements. Aims: 1. To find out utility of maxillary and mandibular canine width as a tool for sex determination in Central Indian population. 2. To find out the average size of canines in males and females of Central Indian population. 3. To compare the findings with National and International studies Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in 100 cases in the age group of 17-21 years. Mesiodistal width of right and left mandibular and maxillary canines were measured on the casts with digital calliper and subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done to assess sex difference using Students 't' test (paired). Results and Conclusions: It was seen that a definite statistically significant sexual dimorphism exists when mandibular and maxillary canine measurements were compared. Thus, it can be suggested that canine width measurements can be used as an adjunct for sex identification purpose in Central Indian Population.
  1 2,200 402
Age estimation using third molar teeth: A study on southern Saudi population
Muhammed Ajmal, Khalil Ibrahim Assiri, Khyrat Yahya Al-Ameer, Ahmad Mohammed Assiri, Master Luqman
July-December 2012, 4(2):63-65
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.109886  PMID:23741143
Objective: To estimate the age of an individual between 13 and 23 years, using Demirjian method in Saudi male patients in the southern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 male patient's digital panoramic radiographs were used to evaluate the morphology of mandibular 3rd molar teeth roots according to the Demirjian method. Using descriptive statistical method, age was calculated. Results: Result showed a strong relation of age with stages of root development of 3rd molar teeth. The standard deviation of mean of root development stages is 1.47 years of age. Conclusion: This study suggests that age can be predicted with a statistical significant result for ages between 13 and 23. Further studies with large population are needed for better statistical results and for female age assessment.
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Assessment of palatal rugae patterns in Manipuri and Kerala population
R Surekha, Koneru Anila, Vikram S Reddy, Santosh Hunasgi, Shamala Ravikumar, Neela Ramesh
July-December 2012, 4(2):93-96
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.109896  PMID:23741150
Background: Palatal rugae comprises three to seven ridges radiating out tangentially from the incisive papilla on the anterior part of the palate. These rugae patterns are studied for various reasons, mainly in the fields of anthropology, genetics, orthodontics, prosthodontics, and forensic science. Objective: To compare the palatal rugae pattern in two different populations (Manipuri and Kerala), and to assess the predominant pattern if any in the selected groups. Materials and Methods: Sixty maxillary study models (30 from each group including males and females) were examined in the age group ranging from 17 to 23 years. Palatal rugae pattern were analyzed on the right and left sides of the palate for total number, length, shape, direction, and unification. Results: After analyzing the rugae patterns in both the groups and between the two sides of the palate, the wavy pattern was found to be predominant followed by curved, straight, and circular in overall population. Manipuri population showed predominant curved shape than the Kerala population and was statistically significant. Females in general had slightly more rugae than males and the left side of the palate showed comparatively more number of rugae than on the right side. Conclusion: A statistically significant association between the shape of the rugae and population exists although, subtle. Parameters like direction and unification need more attention for better understanding.
  1 2,802 439
Status of Forensic Odontology in India
A Venkatachalapathy
July-December 2012, 4(2):57-57
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.109884  PMID:23741141
  - 1,597 274
Permanent maxillary first molars: Role in gender determination (Morphometric analysis)
K Girija, M Ambika
July-December 2012, 4(2):101-102
  - 1,509 378
Determination of sex by exfoliative cytology using acridine orange confocal microscopy: A short study
D Shyam Prasad Reddy, Herald J Sherlin, Pratibha Ramani, P Ajay Prakash
July-December 2012, 4(2):66-69
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.109887  PMID:23741144
Context: Establishing individuality is an imperative aspect in any investigation procedure. Sometimes, in identifying an individual, it becomes necessary to determine the sex of that particular individual. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using a confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. In the present study, we have determined the sex of the individual from buccal mucosal scrapings. The exfoliative cells were observed for Barr bodies under a confocal microscope, and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined. Aims: The main objective of this study is to assess confocal microscopy for the determination of sex by observing Barr bodies in the exfoliative cells of both men and women. Settings and Design: Samples of buccal mucosa smears were made followed by acridine orange staining. The stained slides were observed under a confocal microscope and the data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for mean and standard deviation. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from 20 men and 20 women were obtained by scraping with flat wooden sticks (exfoliative cytology). The smears were fixed in 100% alcohol for 15 min, followed by acridine orange (AO) staining as described by Von Bertalanffy et al. Smears stained with AO were examined under a confocal microscope and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for mean and standard deviation. Results: Two non-overlapping ranges for the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells have been obtained for men and women. It was observed that in the male samples, the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells ranged from 0-3%. In the female samples, the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells ranged from 18-72%, and all the females showed the presence of Barr bodies. Conclusion: The study showed that the presence of Barr body in buccal mucosal cells can be demonstrated with a fair degree of accuracy using acridine orange confocal microscopy. The sex of the individual can be determined accurately with other advantages offered, such as the rapidity of processing and screening a specimen that results in saving of time.
  - 4,047 550
A cephalometric study of skulls from the Bahriyah oasis
Moushira Erfan Zaki, Muhammad Al-Tohamy Soliman, Hala T El-Bassyouni
July-December 2012, 4(2):88-92
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.109895  PMID:23741149
Objectives: To determine the craniofacial characteristics of crania from the Bahariyah oasis dating from the Greco-Roman period and to compare their cephalometric traits with other ancient Egyptian samples from various time periods and to evaluate sexual dimorphism. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 149 skulls (90 males and 59 females), belonging to the Greco-Roman (332 B.C. - 395 A.D.). Lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms were taken. Sixteen linear measurements were analyzed and six indices were calculated. Results: Significant differences were found between males and females almost in all measurements. All male measurements were greater than those of the females. The study shows notable differences in the craniofacial parameters of the present sample as compared to other ancient Egyptians from various periods and from various geographical areas. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the studied crania from Bahriyah oasis had a specific craniometric phenotype, which is distinguished from other Egyptian samples from different periods, suggesting some migration could have occurred along the Egyptian Nile Valley over various times.
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