Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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   2013| January-June  | Volume 5 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 5, 2013

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Barr bodies in sex determination
R Amirthaa Priyadharscini, TR Sabarinath
January-June 2013, 5(1):64-67
  4,597 726 -
Utility of cheiloscopy, rugoscopy, and dactyloscopy for human identification in a defined cohort
Vimi S Mutalik, Aparna Menon, N Jayalakshmi, Asha Kamath, AR Raghu
January-June 2013, 5(1):2-6
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.114535  PMID:23960407
Background: Identification is of paramount importance in any forensic investigation. Positive identification of living or deceased using distinctive traits is a cornerstone of forensic science. The uniqueness of these patterns and subtle distinction between traits has offered worthy supplemental tools in establishing the true nature of facts. Aim: The first aim of our study was to determine the most common pattern of lip prints, palatal rugae, and finger prints in the study subjects. Secondly, to determine if any specific pattern of lip print, palatal rugae, or the finger print concurs in individuals, and thereby establish a database of these prototypes for human identification from a defined cohort. Materials and Methods: The sample size comprised 100 female students of a dental college staying together in the hostel. Lip prints were recorded on a white bond sheet using lipstick, palatal rugae on dental casts, and finger prints using printer's blue ink. Results: Our observation suggested that the reticular pattern of lip print, the wavy pattern of palatal rugae, and the loop pattern of finger prints were the predominant patterns. Correlation of the three parameters did not reveal significant differences. Conclusions: This approach of human identification utilizing conventional techniques and relevant parameters is pertinent in defined groups. However, larger representative sample with robust analytical tools may provide a necessary blueprint of human identification.
  4,106 877 -
Determination of sex by radiographic analysis of mental foramen in North Indian population
Akhilesh Chandra, Anil Singh, Manjunath Badni, Rohit Jaiswal, Archana Agnihotri
January-June 2013, 5(1):52-55
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.114556  PMID:23960416
Aim: Identification and determination of sex of unknown human skeletal remains has been one of the most challenging tasks for forensic dentistry. The purpose of this study was to determine the gender from the analysis of mental foramen on panoramic radiographs in a north Indian population. Materials and Methods: One hundred radiographs were selected for the analysis of mental foramen. Tangents were drawn to the superior and inferior borders of the foramen and perpendiculars were drawn from the tangents to the lower border of the mandible (S-L and I-L). The data obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The average values of S-L and I-L were significantly higher in males than in females, while the distances for the right and left sides of an individual were almost similar in both the male and the females group, and the results were non-significant. Conclusion: The distances from the mental foramen to the lower border of the mandible exhibit sexual dimorphism in the north Indian population.
  4,246 736 1
ABO blood grouping from hard and soft tissues of teeth by modified absorption-elution technique
BK Ramnarayan, M Manjunath, Anagha Ananth Joshi
January-June 2013, 5(1):28-34
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.114559  PMID:23960412
Background: Teeth have always been known as stable tissue that can be preserved both physically and chemically for long periods of time. Blood group substances have been known to be present in both the hard and soft tissues of the teeth. Objectives: This study aimed at detection of ABO blood group substances from soft and hard tissues of teeth and also to evaluate the reliability of teeth stored for a relatively long period as a source of blood group substances by absorption-elution technique with some modifications. Results: Blood group obtained from the teeth was compared with those obtained from the blood sample. Pulp showed a very large correlation in both fresh and long-standing teeth though it decreased slightly in the latter. Hard tissue showed a large correlation in both the groups indicating that hard tissue is quite reliable to detect blood group and that there is no much difference in the reliability in both the groups. However, combining pulp and hard tissue, correlation is moderate. Correlation of blood grouping with the age, sex, and jaw distribution was carried out. Conclusion: Blood group identification from hard and soft tissues of teeth aids in the identification of an individual.
  4,078 579 -
Latent lip print development and its role in suspect identification
Nidhi Dwivedi, Akhil Agarwal, Bina Kashyap, Vineet Raj, Shaleen Chandra
January-June 2013, 5(1):22-27
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.114554  PMID:23960411
Aims and Objective: The study aims to develop latent lip prints on glass surface using fingerprint black powder and its comparison with standard lipstick prints and also determines the effectiveness of the technique. Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 100 subjects, comprising of 50 males and 50 females with age ranging from 17 to 38 years. Latent lipprint was developed by pressing the lips against a glass slab with lips together and the print formed was developed by sprinkling the black finger print powder and transferred to a bond sheet. Subsequently, standard lipstick print was developed from the same subject. All the samples were coded and graded according to the patterns suggested in the literature. Results: Out of 100 latent prints only 29 prints showed lip patterns in all four quadrants. The percentage matching with self lipstick print of good latent prints ranged from 25% to 100% and those of random prints ranged from 8% to 92%. Quadrant wise matching ranged from 52.67% to 57.67%. Statistically significant difference was observed between males and females. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the usefulness of latent lip print in personal identification.
  4,144 502 1
Comparison of lip prints in two different populations of India: Reflections based on a preliminary examination
Anila Koneru, R Surekha, Ganesh Shreekanth Nellithady, M Vanishree, DNSV Ramesh, Ramesh S Patil
January-June 2013, 5(1):11-15
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.114543  PMID:23960409
Background: Dental records, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques used for a person's identification, allowing fast and secure identification processes. However, sometimes it is necessary to apply different and less known techniques such as lip prints. The potential of lip prints to determine sex has been well exhibited and documented. However, very few studies have been conducted using lip prints for population identification. Objective: To determine the predominant lip print patterns in males and females in relation to Kerala and Manipuri population and also to compare the lip print patterns between these populations. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of 60 subjects, which included 30 each from Kerala and Manipuri. Lipstick was applied evenly, and the lip print was obtained by dabbing a strip of cellophane. The classification scheme proposed by Tsuchihashi was used to classify the lip print patterns and the data were statistically analyzed using the z-test for proportions. Results: Type 4 and Type 5 lip print patterns were predominant in males, whereas in females it was Type 1 and Type 1'. Type 1 pattern was most common in both the populations, with an incidence of 28.33%. Furthermore, Type 1 pattern was found to be more in Kerala females and Manipuri males when compared to their counterparts. Type 1 was most common in upper right, upper left, and lower left quadrants whereas in lower right quadrant, Type 1' and Type 4 were predominant in Kerala and Type 5 in Manipuri population. Conclusion: Difference between the lip print patterns in two populations exists, although subtle. However, larger sample size is necessary to derive concrete conclusions.
  3,702 405 2
A comparative study of overlay generation methods in bite mark analysis
Mihir Khatri, Mariappan Jonathan Daniel, Subramanian Vasudevan Srinivasan
January-June 2013, 5(1):16-21
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.114550  PMID:23960410
Aim: To evaluate the best method of overlay generation out of the three methods, i.e., manual, photocopying, and computer assisted method. Materials and Methods: Impressions of maxillary and mandibular arches of 25 individuals participating in the study were made and dental study models were prepared. Overlay production was done by manual, photocopying, and computer assisted methods. Finally, the overlays obtained by each method were compared. Results: Kruskal Wallis ANOVA H test was used for the comparison of manual, photocopying, and computer assisted overlay generation methods. H value being highest in case of computer assisted overlays, thus, making it the best method of overlay generation out of the three methods. Conclusion: We conclude that the method of computer assisted overlay generation is the best among the three methods used in our study.
  3,597 505 -
Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode
Sudhindra Mahoorkar, Anoop Jain
January-June 2013, 5(1):60-63
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.114545  PMID:23960418
Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature for personal identification. They have been broadly divided into surface marking and inclusion methods. In this technique, patient's unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient's Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) are used as denture markers. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual.
  3,498 394 1
Digital approach for measuring dentin translucency in forensic age estimation
Simranjit Singh, Ramesh Venkatapathy, PD Balamurali, NSC Charles, R Suganya
January-June 2013, 5(1):47-51
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.114558  PMID:23960415
Background: Dentin translucency is best suited for age estimation not only in terms of accuracy but also in terms of simplicity. Conventionally, translucency has been measured using calipers. Computer-based methods have been proposed for the same, although these required the use of custom-built software programs. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to use a simple digital method to measure dentinal translucency on sectioned teeth and to compare digital measurements to conventionally obtained translucency measurements. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted permanent teeth were collected and were sectioned to 250 μm. Translucency measurements were obtained using the digital method and compared with those obtained using a caliper. Results: Correlation coefficients of translucency measurements to age were statistically significant for both methods (P < 0.001), and marginally higher for the conventional approach (r = 0.4671). Application of derived linear regression equations on an independent sample (n = 10) revealed a similar ability of both the methods to assess age to within ±5 years of the actual age. Conclusion: The translucency measurements obtained by the two methods were very similar, with no clear superiority of one method over the other. Hence, further studies on a large scale are warranted to determine which method is more reliable to estimate the age.
  3,047 577 1
Adult forensic age estimation using mandibular first molar radiographs: A novel technique
Deepu George Mathew, S Rajesh, Elizabeth Koshi, Lakshmi E Priya, Amal S Nair, Aparna Mohan
January-June 2013, 5(1):56-59
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.114552  PMID:23960417
Objective: To develop an independent procedure for estimating age for Indian individuals using radiographs of multi-rooted posterior teeth with accuracy needed in forensic age prediction. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomography (OPG) was obtained for 88 subjects. The subjects were divided into two sub sets; study subset (n = 60) which were used to find regression formula to calculate the age from pulp chamber height and test subset (n = 28) which were used to test the accuracy of this formula. Results: There was a statistically significant strong correlation between chronological age and pulp chamber crown root trunk height ratio (r = −0.56; P = 0.000). The regression equation for estimating the age, derived from the study subset was estimated age = −100.920 (PCTHR) +55.415. (PCTHR is the pulp chamber crown root trunk height ratio). This equation was applied on the test subset and there was no significant difference between estimated ages and chronological ages (P = 0.639). The mean absolute error (MAE) was 6.96 years, which was within acceptable error limits for forensic age estimation (<±10 years). Conclusion: The procedure developed to estimate the age using height reduction in pulp chamber was found to be fairly accurate to perform forensic age prediction in Indian individuals.
  2,956 654 1
A study of composite restorations as a tool in forensic identification
Bahavathi Ananthan Hemasathya, Sundaresan Balagopal
January-June 2013, 5(1):35-41
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.114561  PMID:23960413
Introduction: Comparing ante-mortem and post-mortem dental data is a principal method of identification in forensic odontology. Radiographic images of amalgam have been used in dental forensics for identification due to their unique appearance. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether radio-opaque composite restorations have a potential for identification in forensic odontology. Materials and Methods: Thirty typodont mandibular first molar teeth were prepared with Class-II (proximo-occlusal) cavities and restored with a radio-opaque composite (Tetric N-Ceram). Two sets of standardized radiographs were taken from the 30 teeth, keeping the radiological parameters constant. One set of these 30 radiographs was named as SET 1. Ten randomly chosen radiographs from the other set and two other radiographs of Class-II composite restorations in typodont teeth constituted SET 2. Thirty dentally trained examiners were asked to match the 12 radiographic images of SET 2 with those of SET 1. Results: The results show that 15 examiners were able to correctly match all the 12 images. Statistical analysis was done using kappa statistical test. Conclusion: This study shows that, if the post-mortem radiographs are accurate duplicates of ante-mortem radiographs of composite restorations, then the shape of the composite restoration is unique and can be used for identification.
  2,661 433 -
Are teeth evidence in acid environment
Makesh Raj, Karen Boaz, N Srikant
January-June 2013, 5(1):7-10
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.114536  PMID:23960408
Aim: Teeth are the most durable structures that resist destruction more than skeletal tissue Commercially available acids can be used to destroy the body or a part, to mask human identification. The present study examines the effect of caustic acids on human dentition. Materials and Methods: Ten upper anterior teeth each were immersed in 37% hydrochloric acid (conc. HCl), 65% nitric acid (conc. HNO 3 ) and 96% sulfuric acid (conc. H 2 SO 4 ). Teeth were retrieved, washed in distilled water, dried, photographed and radiographed at intervals of 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 3 hr, 5 hr and 8 hr. Results: Teeth placed in conc. HCl and conc. HNO 3 dissolved completely after 8 hours, while that placed in conc. H 2 SO 4 retained its morphology and radiographic dimension even after 8 hours. Conclusion: Hence teeth can serve as a tool in identification (age estimation and sex determination) of the victim when in contact with conc. H 2 SO 4 .
  2,619 455 2
Assessment of morphological changes and DNA quantification: An in vitro study on acid-immersed teeth
K Sowmya, US Sudheendra, Samar Khan, Neelu Nagpal, SJ Prathamesh
January-June 2013, 5(1):42-46
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.114560  PMID:23960414
Context: Acid immersion of victim's body is one of the methods employed to subvert identification of the victim, and hence of the perpetrator. Being hardest and chemically the most stable tissue in the body, teeth can be an important forensic investigative medium in both living and nonliving populations. Teeth are also good reservoirs of both cellular and mitochondrial DNA; however, the quality and quantity of DNA obtained varies according to the environment the tooth has been subjected to. DNA extraction from acid-treated teeth has seldom been reported. Aims: The objectives of the present study were to assess the morphological changes along with DNA recovery from acid-immersed teeth. Materials and Methods: Concentrated hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid were employed for tooth decalcification. DNA was extracted on an hourly basis using phenol-chloroform method. Quantification of extracted DNA was done using a spectrophotometer. Results: Results showed that hydrochloric acid had more destructive capacity compared to other acids. Conclusion: Sufficient quantity of DNA was obtainable till the first 2 hours of acid immersion and there was an inverse proportional relation between mean absorbance ratio and quantity of obtained DNA on an hourly basis.
  2,577 305 1
A model road map to the practice of forensic odontology
Mandana Donoghue
January-June 2013, 5(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.114534  PMID:23960406
  2,114 362 -