Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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   2014| January-April  | Volume 6 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 25, 2014

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What's the deal with dental records for practicing dentists? Importance in general and forensic dentistry
Arishka Devadiga
January-April 2014, 6(1):9-15
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.127764  PMID:24695875
Dental records are essential for dentist and patient protection, and its maintenance is considered an ethical and legal obligation of the dentist: Ethical, because it satisfies the duty of care that the dentist has toward his patient and legal, as it is an investment for future protection against medico-legal complications. In addition to its legal and ethical role, the dental fraternity in India is slowly waking up to its importance in forensic dentistry. Dentists could play a vital role in assisting forensic investigators in providing information that would help in the identification of perpetrators or victims of crime and natural or manmade disaster situations. This information would be easily available and accessible through well-maintained patient records under dental care.
  4,858 577 -
Assessment of frontal sinus dimensions to determine sexual dimorphism among Indian adults
Chetan Belaldavar, Vijayalakshmi S Kotrashetti, Seema R Hallikerimath, Alka D Kale
January-April 2014, 6(1):25-30
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.127766  PMID:24695810
Background: Sex identification of unknown individuals is important in forensic sciences. At times when only skull remains are found and other means of identification fails, radiographs of frontal sinus can be used for identification. Frontal sinus morphology is unique to individual and can be used effectively in person identification; whereas its use in determining sexual dimorphism is limited. Aim: To determine sexual dimorphism among Indians by evaluating frontal sinus pattern using postero-anterior radiograph. Materials and Methods: The right and left areas, maximum height and width of frontal sinus were determined in 300 digital postero-anterior view radiographs obtained from 150 males and 150 females aged between 18-30 years. The measurements were carried out by transferring the image to Adobe® Photoshop® CS3 extended. Comparison of values were done using student's t-test and accuracy of sex determination was assessed through Logistic regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: One hundred and forty seven males and 142 females show presence of frontal sinus with seven individuals showing unilateral/bilateral absence of frontal sinuses. The mean values of the frontal sinus height, width and area are greater in males. Right frontal sinus is larger than the left sinus in both the sex. The mathematical model based on logistic regression analysis gives an average concordance index for sex determination of 64.6%. Thus, frontal sinus provides average accuracy in sex determination among Indian population. This may be due to its greater variation in morphology.
  3,294 647 2
BK Charan Gowda, B Sivapatha Sundharam, Jyothi Mahadesh, Mukund
January-April 2014, 6(1):3-8
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.127763  PMID:24696586
Forensic toxicology deals with the investigation of toxic substances, poisonous products or with the environmental chemicals. This field of science helps to identify poison substance and hazardous chemicals. Forensic toxicology deals with the way that substances are absorbed, distributed or eliminated in the body - the metabolism of substances. This paper reviews the manifestations that each poisonous substance presents concentrating toward the commonly used poisonous substance especially in India. It also explains the Indian Penal Code, which is main criminal code intended to cover all substantive aspects of criminal law regarding poison.
  3,216 419 1
Forensic odontology as a victim identification tool in mass disasters: A feasibility study in the Indian scenario
Shamindra Sengupta, Vandana Sharma, Vineeta Gupta, Hitesh Vij, Ruchieka Vij, Kanika Prabhat
January-April 2014, 6(1):58-61
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.127774  PMID:24695834
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of practicing dentists about the subject of forensic odontology and to assess their willingness to maintain and share patient records. Materials and Methods: A blind questionnaire survey was carried out among 100 randomly selected practicing dentists in district Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh. Results: Most of the dentists interviewed were familiar with the subject of forensic odontology and its relation to dentistry, despite forensic dentistry having been newly introduced since 2007 into the undergraduate dental curriculum in India. However, dental records are maintained by only a few dentists, and only a very small percentage of them reported to have shared records, which may have helped in the identification of victims in a mass disaster. Conclusion: The result of our survey concluded that more awareness needs to be developed among practicing dentists regarding maintaining and sharing patient records for forensic odontology to succeed as a victim identification tool.
  2,800 567 -
Training module for cheiloscopy and palatoscopy in forensic odontology
Shally Khanna, Narendra Nath Singh, Veera Rosaline Brave, Gadiputi Sreedhar, Anupam Purwar, Alok Srivastava
January-April 2014, 6(1):36-41
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.127768  PMID:24695814
Introduction: Studies of lip prints and palatal rugae, dates back to late 19 th and early 20 th centuries and since then, various methods of classification and analysis were introduced, however systematic recording and analysis of data is still need to improve further, to arrive at flawless and meaningful conclusions. Moreover, the awareness among dental personnel regarding the practical knowledge of cheiloscopy and palatoscopy is ambiguous. So, efforts have been made to introduce training module to improve the education of cheiloscopy and palatoscopy for dental students. Aims and Objective: 1. To prepare training module for cheiloscopy and palatoscopy. 2. To assess the efficacy of designed training module. Materials and Methods: Training module was used to train the dental students. Random matching of lip and palatal rugae patterns was carried out by dental students before and after training. Pre- and post-training matched results were then compared. Intraobserver variability assessed by comparing first and second assessment of lip print and palatal rugae patterns. Results: It was inferred statistically that training module had improved the ability to identify individuals based on lip prints and palatal rugae, with insignificant intraobserver variation.
  2,464 446 1
Palatal rugae: An effective marker in population differentiation
Rachna Rath, B Ajay Reginald
January-April 2014, 6(1):46-50
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.127771  PMID:24696589
Background: The superiority of dentofacial structures as scientific identifiers, particularly in mass disasters is well known. Special techniques like rugoscopy are valuable not only in identification of skeletal remains but can also facilitate population differentiation, as few studies have shown. Aim: The present study is to classify and compare the differences in rugae shape in populations of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha and to evaluate the discriminatory ability of rugae shape in population differentiation. Materials and Methods: One hundred maxillary casts from each group, equally divided between the sexes and in a narrow age range, were classified as per rugae shapes. The incidence of rugae shape was recorded and their association with ethnicity was tested using Chi-square analysis and step wise discriminant function analysis. All analysis was undertaken using SPSS 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) and MS Excel Package. Results: Straight and nonspecific rugae were most prevalent in Andhra Pradesh, whereas the wavy forms and unifications prevailed in Odisha. A hitherto unknown nonspecific "plaque pattern" was detected in considerable numbers in Andhra Pradesh population. The accuracy of the discriminant function analysis in differentiating the study populations was 93.5%. Conclusion: Significant differences in rugae shape between the two populations emerged that also allowed a fair differentiation, thus validating previous reports of a good discriminatory ability of rugae shapes. Perhaps, more studies in genetically diverse populations as in India could also unearth new rugae patterns and further the identification process.
  2,452 450 3
Age estimation of an Indian population by using the Kim's scoring system of occlusal tooth wear
Lahari A Telang, Karthikeya Patil, VG Mahima
January-April 2014, 6(1):16-24
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.127765  PMID:24695780
Context: Age is one of the prime factors employed to establish the identity of an individual and the use of teeth for this purpose has been considered reliable. Tooth wear is widely accepted as a physiological consequence of aging and evaluation of tooth wear can be a simple and convenient tool to estimate age in adults. Aims: The present study was conducted to record the degree of tooth wear among Indian adults and to estimate their ages from the degree of tooth wear based on Kim's scoring system. Materials and Methods: Dental stone casts of 120 participants were used to assess the degree of occlusal tooth wear based on the criteria given by Kim et al. Statistical Analysis Used: The age of all subjects was estimated based on these scores using multiple regression analysis function. Results: The degree of tooth wear showed a significant positive correlation with age in each and every examined tooth of both males and females. The predicted age was within ± 5 years of actual age in 70% of males and 68.3% females, and within ± 3 years of actual age in 50% of males and 50.1% of females. Conclusions: Kim's scoring system has proven to be a useful tool in estimation of age using occlusal wear in an Indian population with a high level of accuracy in adults.
  2,379 410 1
Image manipulation: Fraudulence in digital dental records: Study and review
Aman Chowdhry, Keya Sircar, Deepika Bablani Popli, Ankita Tandon
January-April 2014, 6(1):31-35
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.127767  PMID:24696587
Introduction: In present-day times, freely available software allows dentists to tweak their digital records as never before. But, there is a fine line between acceptable enhancements and scientific delinquency. Aims and Objective: To manipulate digital images (used in forensic dentistry) of casts, lip prints, and bite marks in order to highlight tampering techniques and methods of detecting and preventing manipulation of digital images. Materials and Methods: Digital image records of forensic data (casts, lip prints, and bite marks photographed using Samsung Techwin L77 digital camera) were manipulated using freely available software. Results: Fake digital images can be created either by merging two or more digital images, or by altering an existing image. Discussion and Conclusion: Retouched digital images can be used for fraudulent purposes in forensic investigations. However, tools are available to detect such digital frauds, which are extremely difficult to assess visually. Thus, all digital content should mandatorily have attached metadata and preferably watermarking in order to avert their malicious re-use. Also, computer alertness, especially about imaging software's, should be promoted among forensic odontologists/dental professionals.
  2,378 298 1
Effect of various temperatures on restored and unrestored teeth: A forensic study
Shubhangi P Bagdey, Rohit Balwant Moharil, Alka M Dive, Samantha Thakur, Ashish Bodhade, Akshay A Dhobley
January-April 2014, 6(1):62-66
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.127777  PMID:24696591
Background: In large scale disasters associated with fire the damage caused by heat can make medico legal identification of human remains difficult. Teeth, restorations, and prostheses all of which are resistant to quite high temperatures and can be used as aids in identification process. Aim: Aim of the study was to investigate the macroscopic and microscopic changes of teeth and several dental filling materials exposed to a range of high temperature (200-800°C). Dental restorations include filling materials, crown, and bridges. Materials and Methods: Restored and unrestored teeth were placed in a furnace and heated at a rate of 30°C/min and the effects of the predetermined temperatures 200, 400, 600, and 800°C were observed. Macroscopic and stereo microscope findings were observed. Results: Our results showed that teeth and restorative materials resist higher temperatures than theoretically predicted and that even when a restoration is lost because of detachment or change of state, its ante-mortem presence can be confirmed and detected by stereo microscopic examination of the residual cavity. Conclusion: We further conclude that a reasonably reliable estimation of the temperature of exposure can be made from an analysis of the teeth and restorative materials.
  2,211 416 -
Forensic Odontology: Trends in India
Ajit Dinakar
January-April 2014, 6(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.127760  PMID:24696585
  2,104 382 -
Occurrence of diversity in dental pattern and their role in identification in Indian population: An orthopantomogram based pilot study
Abhishek Kumar, Sujoy Ghosh, Ajay Logani
January-April 2014, 6(1):42-45
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.127770  PMID:24696588
Objective: The objective of the study was to identify the diversity of dental pattern in the Indian population based on specific patterns of missing, filled, unrestored and impacted teeth using dental radiographs. Materials and Methodology: Three hundred dental orthopantomograph were randomly selected and observed for the occurrence of dental patterns. The frequency of occurrence of dental patterns and the diversity in dental patterns were calculated for full dentition, maxilla and mandible.Results: The incidence of the most common dental pattern formed by 32 virgin teeth was 9.3%. The diversity of dental pattern for full dentition was 99.7%. Diversity in the maxilla was 59.0% and that in the mandible was 82.0%.Conclusion:The study reveals the importance of diversity in dental patterns and their role in identification for forensic purposes.
  2,107 310 1
Expression of Carabelli trait in children from Southern India - A cross sectional study
Rekhalakshmi Kamatham, Sivakumar Nuvvula
January-April 2014, 6(1):51-57
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.127772  PMID:24696590
Background: The distribution of the Carabelli trait is highly variable in different regions and races of the world. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Carabelli trait in a group of children from Nellore. Materials and Methods: Children who attended the department between October 2011 to March 2012 were selected and examined for the expression of Carabelli trait in the maxillary primary second molar, permanent first and permanent second molars on the basis of the classification developed by Kraus and standards developed by Dahlberg. Statistical Methods: Descriptive statistics was performed and the relative frequency of expression in each category, according to Kraus's and Dahlberg's classification was calculated. Sexual dimorphism was statistically analyzed using Mann­-Whitney U-test. Results: A total of 89.8% of primary second molars, 63.7% of permanent first molars, and 8% of permanent second molars showed some form of expression of Carabelli trait in the target population. Conclusion: Though there was a high frequency of intermediate expressions of this trait, occurrence of a definite cusp of Carabelli on the primary maxillary second molar and permanent maxillary first molar was relatively infrequent. A high percentage of the permanent maxillary second molars showed complete absence of Carabelli trait and there was no sexual dimorphism. Bilateralism with varying degrees of asymmetry was noted and there was tendency for concordance between the two sides but not within individual sides.
  2,088 255 -
Denture labeling in forensic dentistry
M Murugesh, S Selva Ganesh
January-April 2014, 6(1):67-69
  1,883 279 -
IAFO Members in the IOFOS Congress, Italy, August 2013

January-April 2014, 6(1):70-70
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