Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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   2015| May-August  | Volume 7 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 4, 2015

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A study of the palatal rugae pattern among male female and transgender population of Bhopal city
Eshani Saxena, BR Chandrashekhar, Sudheer Hongal, Nilesh Torwane, Pankaj Goel, Priyesh Mishra
May-August 2015, 7(2):142-147
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.146370  PMID:26005304
Context: Transgenders are highly disadvantaged people, deprived of adequate opportunities of earning a respectable living. The forensic literature has emphasized on two genders, male and female, the existence of a third gender (Transgenders) is almost negligible in the literature, and this makes it compulsive to determine their identity through forensic approaches at the time of disasters. Previous studies have demonstrated that no two palatal rugae pattern are alike in their configuration and this unique feature has led us to undertake a study to establish individual identities using palatal rugae pattern. Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the palatal rugae pattern among male, female, and transgender population of the Bhopal city. Settings and Design: This study was cross sectional in nature and conducted on a convenience sample of 148 subjects selected from Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh. The study involved 49 males, 51 females, and 48 eunuchs in the age range of 17 to 35 years. Materials and Methods: Maxillary impression using alginate impression material was made and the cast was prepared using die stone on palatal area and dental stone as a base. The palatal rugae pattern was assessed on the basis of number, length, shape, direction, and unification. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA was used for comparing the mean values between different genders. The multiple pairwise comparisons were done with the Bonferroni post hoc correction. The statistical significance was fixed at 0.05. Results: The statistically significant difference with regard to some parameters like number of rugae, fragmentary rugae, wavy rugae, curve rugae, forwardly directed, and backwardly directed rugae between transgender and other gender groups were present. Conclusion: The difference in the parameters of the palatal rugae pattern among the transgender population and the other gender group is attributed to be the genetic makeup and sexual dimorphism.
  1 4,035 283
Diagonal tooth measurements in sex assessment: A study on North Indian population
Adesh S Manchanda, Ramandeep S Narang, Sukhdeep S Kahlon, Balwinder Singh
May-August 2015, 7(2):126-131
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.146371  PMID:26005301
Background: Sexual dimorphism has been of great interest to anthropologists and odontologists. Dental measurements are important in anthropology for the study of sexual dimorphism with most common being the traditional linear odontometric measurements. Apart from these, alternative dental measurements have been developed such as the crown and cervical diagonal diameters and mesiodistal and buccolingual cervical diameters of teeth. Aims and Objective: The primary objective of the following study is to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in teeth of a North Indian population using the crown diagonal diameters and secondary is to evaluate the applicability of diagonal measurements in sex determination by means of discriminant functional analysis. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 200 individuals (100 males and 100 females) of an age group ranging from 18 to 57 years, in a North Indian population. The mesiobuccal-distolingual (MBDL) and distobuccal-mesiolingual (DBML) crown diameters of seven maxillary and seven mandibular teeth on the study models were measured using digital Vernier calipers. Results: The most dimorphic teeth amongst all for crown diagonal diameters are the maxillary central incisors and the least dimorphic are the maxillary second premolars. The mean diagonal crown dimensions in all but one tooth (DBML of maxillary lateral incisor) of males exceeded that of females. The difference was statistically significant in MBDL dimensions of maxillary and mandibular central incisor, canine, first and second molar and DBML dimensions of maxillary central incisor and maxillary and mandibular canine, first molar and second molar (P < 0.05). The accuracy of determination of sex by MBDL crown dimension ranges from 55% to 75% in males and 47-84% in females, while by DBML crown dimension ranges from 55% to 80% in males and 65-80% in females with the overall accuracy of sex determination ranging from 51% to 80% respectively. Conclusion: MBDL and DBML crown dimensions are reliable indicators and can be used along with or/and instead of linear measurements in sex determination. In situations in which it is difficult to take correct measurements of linear dimensions of teeth, these alternative odontometric measurements can be used consistently to determine sex.
  1 4,152 332
CASE REPORT
Histological appearance of postmortem pink teeth: Report of two cases
BK Charan Gowda, B Sivapathasundharam, Ananjan Chatterji, BL Chatterji
May-August 2015, 7(2):168-170
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.156200  PMID:26005309
This article presents images and histological changes in the dentin of two cases involving posmortem pink teeth. Postmortem pink teeth were noted among two deceased male individuals. Pink teeth were noted during autopsy examination after twelve days in one corpse, and eight days following death in the second case. During the examination decomposition and putrefaction of the body was noted. Cause of death was drowning in one case and haemorrhages and shock in another. A central incisor tooth was obtained from each body. Both teeth exhibited a pink appearance and the intensity was more pronounced in the cervical region. Although pink teeth can be noted in death due to asphyxia, carbon monoxide poisoning and so on, it is necessary to study the exact role behind the appearance of pink teeth and try to incorporate the finding medico legally.
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EDITORIAL COMMENTARY
Is dentistry becoming a carnival of rust?
Panthula Veerendranath Reddy, Pasupula Ajay Prakash, Vedati Santosh Kumar
May-August 2015, 7(2):83-83
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.155074  PMID:26005293
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Four odontometric parameters as a forensic tool in stature estimation
Rajbir Kaur Khangura, Keya Sircar, Dilpreet Singh Grewal
May-August 2015, 7(2):132-136
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.146367  PMID:26005302
Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the possibility of predicting the height of an individual using selected odontometric parameters as a forensic tool. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 100 subjects (50 male and 50 female). Measurements of intercanine width (IC), interpremolar width (IP), mesiodistal dimension of six permanent maxillary anterior teeth (CW), and arch length (AL, canine to canine) were made directly on the subject. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis and a linear regression formula was obtained against each odontometric parameter. Results: Highly significant correlation was observed between height and intercanine width, interpremolar width (P < 0.0001), whereas correlation between height and the combined width of six anterior teeth and arch length was found to be not significant. The linear regression equation using formula y = c + mx was obtained for each odontometric parameter and also for combined parameters. Conclusion: Hence the study concludes that the two odontometric parameters such as intercanine width and interpremolar width can be used successfully to calculate the stature of an individual from fragmentary remains.
  - 3,781 428
Occlusal morphology of permanent mandibular first and second molars in Gujarati population
Bhavik Dholia, Bhari Sharanesha Manjunatha
May-August 2015, 7(2):137-141
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.146368  PMID:26005303
Background: Dental identification has been used since long time for disaster victim identification protocol. There is a difference of opinion regarding whether ethnicity influences dental morphology or not. Few studies have shown the associations between these dental features and crown traits in humans using quantitative methods. The present study is an attempt to find correlation of occlusal morphology of Gujarati population with forensic Odontology. Aim: To study different occlusal morphology of permanent mandibular first and second molars in Gujarati Population. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of a total of 100 participants of Gujarati origin, selected by random sampling method. Total number of cusps and groove patterns of mandibular first and second molar were examined clinically and photographs of the same were taken. A descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and Student t-test were used for analysis of data. Results: Mandibular first molar with 5 cusps in 71%, 4 cusps in 18% and 6 cusps in 11% were noted in the study. Mandibular first molars with "+" groove pattern in 39.5% and "Y" groove pattern in 60.5% were recorded. Mandibular second molar with 5 cusps in 6.5% and 4 cusps in 93.5% were recorded in the study. Mandibular second molars with "+" groove pattern in 93.5% and "Y" groove pattern in 6.5% were recorded. Conclusion: The most common occlusal morphology in permanent mandibular first molar is "5 cusp" and "Y" groove pattern in about 47% and for second molar is "4 cusp" and "+" groove pattern in 88.5% of Gujarati population. It may be concluded that variation in degree of expression and frequency of teeth in dentitions of different populations is different, which may help in forensic identification.
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Determination of sexual dimorphism via maxillary first molar teeth in Himachali population
Swati Singla, Rakhi Gupta, Abhiney Puri, Sucheta Bansal, Smita Singla, Rajat Nangia
May-August 2015, 7(2):90-94
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.156190  PMID:26005295
Context: Sex determination of skeletal remains forms part of archaeological and medicolegal examinations. It is an aspect of forensic odontology. Forensic odontology primarily deals with identification, based on recognition of unique features present in an individual's dental structures. Correct sex determination limits the pool of missing persons to just one half of the population. Aim of Study: Purpose of this study is to evaluate the existence of sexual dimorphism and variation in left and right maxillary first molars using bucco-lingual and mesio-distal dimensions in population of Sirmour District, H.P. Materials and Methods: Base sample comprised 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) of an age group ranging from 17 to 25 years. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t-test. Results: It was observed that the comparison of mean values of bucco-lingual and mesio-distal parameters showed highly statistically significant differences between males and females, measured both intraorally and on study casts. There were no significant differences between the mean values of both the parameters on the left side as compared to right side. Conclusion: The study concludes that sexual dimorphism is population specific. Among Himachali people, mesio-distal dimensions and bucco-lingual dimensions of first molar can aid in sex determination.
  - 3,548 441
Estimation of time elapsed since the death from identification of morphological and histological time-related changes in dental pulp: An observational study from porcine teeth
Monica Mehendiratta, Kanu Jain, Karen Boaz, Mohit Bansal, Nidhi Manaktala
May-August 2015, 7(2):95-100
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.154594  PMID:26005296
Aim: Putrefaction of the human body with its rate and stages of the various changes occurring in this entire process have been explored widely by the forensic medicine experts to estimate the time elapsed since death. However, experimental data reported in literature pertaining to rates of putrefaction of the dental pulp retrieved from jaws of the dead is scarce. This study makes an attempt to find out the series of various changes which occur during the process of putrefaction of the dental pulp in a coastal environment like that of Southern India. An attempt has also been made to estimate the time elapsed since the death by assessing the duration for which dental pulp remains microscopically intact. Materials and Methods: Three different study setups at different times, followed one by other were created. In each setup, 10 specimens of porcine jaws with teeth were buried in surface soil and 10 specimens in subsurface soil. Dental pulp was retrieved at an interval of every 24 h to see for the various changes. All the environmental parameters including average daily rainfall precipitation, temperature, soil humidity, soil temperature, and soil pH were recorded. Results: A specific series of morphological changes in terms of changes in size, color, consistency, and odor; and a sequence of histological changes were observed from both surface and subsurface samples. Conclusion: Dental pulp buried in a coastal environment goes through a specific series of morphological and histological changes which can be interpreted up to 144 h from burial, after which pulp ceases to exist.
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Effects of elevated temperatures on different restorative materials: An aid to forensic identification processes
Chetan A Pol, Suvarna K Ghige, Suchitra R Gosavi, Vinay K Hazarey
May-August 2015, 7(2):148-152
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.154591  PMID:26005305
Background: Heat-induced alterations to dental and restorative materials can be of great interest to forensic dentistry. Knowing the specific optical behavior of dental materials can be of high importance as recognition of changes induced by high temperatures can lead to the determination of material which was used in a dental restoration, facilitating identification of burned human remains. Aim: To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures (200°C-400°C-600°C-800°C-1000°C) on unrestored teeth and different restorative materials macroscopically and then examine them under a stereomicroscope for the purpose of identification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 375 extracted teeth which were divided into five groups of 75 teeth each as follows: group 1- unrestored teeth, group 2- teeth restored with all-ceramic crowns, Group 3- with class I silver amalgam filling, group 4- with class I composite restoration, and group 5- with class I glass ionomer cement restoration. Results: Unrestored and restored teeth display a series of specific macroscopic & stereomicroscopic structural changes for each range of temperature. Conclusion: Dental tissues and restorative materials undergo a series of changes which correlate well with the various temperatures to which they were exposed. These changes are a consequence of the nature of the materials and their physicochemical characteristics.
  - 3,420 279
Demirjian's method in the estimation of age: A study on human third molars
Amitha J Lewis, Karen Boaz, KR Nagesh, N Srikant, Neha Gupta, KP Nandita, Nidhi Manaktala
May-August 2015, 7(2):153-157
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.155081  PMID:26005306
Aim: The primary aim of the following study is to estimate the chronological age based on the stages of third molar development following the eight stages (A to H) method of Demirjian et al. (along with two modifications-Orhan) and secondary aim is to compare third molar development with sex and age. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 115 orthopantomograms from South Indian subjects with known chronological age and gender. Multiple regression analysis was performed with chronological age as the dependable variable and third molar root development as independent variable. All the statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 11.0 package (IBM ® Corporation). Results: Statistically no significant differences were found in third molar development between males and females. Depending on the available number of wisdom teeth in an individual, R2 varied for males from 0.21 to 0.48 and for females from 0.16 to 0.38. New equations were derived for estimating the chronological age. Conclusion: The chronological age of a South Indian individual between 14 and 22 years may be estimated based on the regression formulae. However, additional studies with a larger study population must be conducted to meet the need for population-based information on third molar development.
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Age estimation using lower permanent first molars on a panoramic radiograph: A digital image analysis
Ranjdar M Talabani, Mohammed T Baban, Mohammed A Mahmood
May-August 2015, 7(2):158-162
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.154597  PMID:26005307
Objective: A study was carried out to analyze the efficacy and practical application for age estimation using digital panoramic radiograph to exploit image analysis to obtain metric measurement of morphological parameters of permanent mandibular first molar on Sulaimani population. Materials and Methods: In the present study a population of known age and sex was studied and subjected to digital panoramic radiographic examination. The correlation between the reduction of coronal pulp cavity and chronological age was examined in a sample of 96 individuals distributed into four age groups: 20-29 years (29 cases), 30-39 years (29 cases), 40-49 years (26 cases) and 50-59 years (12 cases). The height (mm) of the crown (CH = coronal height) and the height (mm) of coronal pulp cavity (CPCH = coronal pulp cavity height) of 96 of first molars from all subjects was measured. The tooth-coronal index (TCI) after Ikeda et al. was computed for each tooth and regressed on real age. Results: ANOVA was used to show the strength of relation between the age and TCI (P = 0.0000). The correlation coefficient (r 2 ) was 0.49, which mean there is strong negative linear regression between age and TCI with the r 2, regarding predicting age using TCI value, after the following equation calculated, Predicted age = 3.78 - (0.064 TCI) showed that there is no significant difference between real age and estimated age. Conclusion: There is a strong negative liner relationship between TCIs of mandibular first molars with chronological age of Sulaimani population, and age of individuals can therefore be estimated with a good degree of accuracy using regression equations.
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Sex determination using maxillary sinus
Ranjith Kumar Kanthem, Venkateswara Rao Guttikonda, Sivaranjani Yeluri, Geetha Kumari
May-August 2015, 7(2):163-167
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.154595  PMID:26005308
Background: Individual identification is a subtle concept and often one of the most important priorities in mass disasters, road accidents, air crashes, fires, and even in the investigation of criminal cases. Matching specific features detected on the cadaver with data recorded during the life of an individual is an important aspect in forensics, and can be performed by fingerprint analysis, deoxyribonucleic acid matching, anthropological methods, radiological methods and other techniques which can facilitate age and sex identification. Sinus radiography is one such method that has been used for determination of the sex of an individual. Hence, an attempt is being made to use the different dimensions of the maxillary sinus in the determination of sex using coronal and axial sections of plain computed tomography (CT) scan. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients including 17 male and 13 female, visiting the Outpatient Department of the Mamata General Hospital were included as the study subjects. The dimensions of right and left maxillary sinuses of 30 subjects from plain CT were measured using SYNGO software and statistical analysis was done. Results: Sex determination using height, length, width, and volume of the maxillary sinus on both sides showed statistically significant results with a higher percentage of sexual dimorphism in the case of volume. Conclusion: Volume of the right maxillary sinus can be used as accurate diagnostic parameter for sex determination.
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Cheiloscopic patterns in Indian population and their efficacy in sex determination: A randomized cross-sectional study
Rachna Kaul, Shreenivasa Murthy Padmashree, Padar Shastry Shilpa, Nishat Sultana, Suraksha Bhat
May-August 2015, 7(2):101-106
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.156192  PMID:26005297
Background: Cheiloscopy or the study of lip prints is an important tool in forensic dentistry which is gaining popularity in current times. Not only has it proven effective in identification of individuals, but its role in sex determination has also been investigated. There are six different types of cheiloscopic/lip print patterns according to Tsuchihashi. Aims: The present study was conducted to find the prevalence of cheiloscopic/lip print pattern in 755 individuals and also to assess their efficacy in sex determination. Materials and Methods: According to classification by Tsuchihashi, the lip prints were analysed. Sex determination using lip print was done by method given by Vahanwala et al. Results: It was found that Type I was the most prevalent cheiloscopic pattern. Based on the method of sex determination using lip prints by Vahanwala et al., the percentage of individuals correctly identified was less. Conclusion: Although cheiloscopy holds promise as a supplementary tool along with other modes to recognize the sex of an individual, there is need for further studies using standardized methods to evaluate the same in larger population sizes.
  - 3,706 320
Reliability of third molar development for age estimation in Gujarati population: A comparative study
Neha Gandhi, Sandeep Jain, Manish Kumar, Pratik Rupakar, Kanaram Choyal, Seema Prajapati
May-August 2015, 7(2):107-113
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.156197  PMID:26005298
Background: Age assessment may be a crucial step in postmortem profiling leading to confirmative identification. In children, Demirjian's method based on eight developmental stages was developed to determine maturity scores as a function of age and polynomial functions to determine age as a function of score. Aim: Of this study was to evaluate the reliability of age estimation using Demirjian's eight teeth method following the French maturity scores and Indian-specific formula from developmental stages of third molar with the help of orthopantomograms using the Demirjian method. Materials and Methods: Dental panoramic tomograms from 30 subjects each of known chronological age and sex were collected and were evaluated according to Demirjian's criteria. Age calculations were performed using Demirjian's formula and Indian formula. Statistical analysis used was Chi-square test and ANOVA test and the P values obtained were statistically significant. Results: There was an average underestimation of age with both Indian and Demirjian's formulas. The mean absolute error was lower using Indian formula hence it can be applied for age estimation in present Gujarati population. Also, females were ahead of achieving dental maturity than males thus completion of dental development is attained earlier in females. Conclusion: Greater accuracy can be obtained if population-specific formulas considering the ethnic and environmental variation are derived performing the regression analysis.
  - 3,062 231
Cheiloscopy and dactyloscopy: Do they dictate personality patterns?
Mohammed Abidullah, M Naveen Kumar, Kavita D Bhorgonde, D Shyam Prasad Reddy
May-August 2015, 7(2):114-120
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.155079  PMID:26005299
Context: Cheiloscopy and dactyloscopy, both are well-established forensic tools used in individual identification in any scenario be it a crime scene or civil cause. Like finger prints, lip prints are unique and distinguishable for every individual. But their relationship to personality types has not been established excepting the hypothesis stating that finger prints could explain these personality patterns. Aims: The study was aimed to record and correlate the lip and finger prints with that of character/personality of a person. Settings and Design: The lip and finger prints and character of a person were recorded and the data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for Pearson's Chi-square test and correlation/association between the groups was also studied. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised of 200 subjects, 100 males and 100 females, aged between 18 and 30 years. For recording lip prints, brown/pink-colored lipstick was applied on the lips and the subjects were asked to spread uniformly over the lips. Lip prints were traced in the normal rest position on a plain white bond paper. For recording the finger prints, imprints of the fingers were taken on a plain white bond paper using ink pad. The collected prints were visualized using magnifying lens. To record the character of person, a pro forma manual for multivariable personality inventory by Dr. BC Muthayya was used. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for Pearson's Chi-square test and correlation/association between the groups was also studied. Results: In males, predominant lip pattern recorded was Type I with whorls-type finger pattern and the character being ego ideal, pessimism, introvert, and dogmatic; whereas in females, predominant lip pattern recorded was Type II with loops-type finger pattern and the character being neurotic, need achievers, and dominant. Conclusion: Many studies on lip pattern, finger pattern, palatal rugae, etc., for individual identification and gender determination exist, but correlative studies are scanty. This is the first study done on correlating patterns, that is, lip and finger pattern with the character of a person. With this study we conclude that this correlation can be used as an adjunct in the investigatory process in forensic sciences.
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Evaluation of skeletal and dental age using third molar calcification, condylar height and length of the mandibular body
Sunil Gupta Kedarisetty, Guttikonda Venkateswara Rao, Naveen Rayapudi, Rajani Korlepara
May-August 2015, 7(2):121-125
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.155077  PMID:26005300
Aim: To identify the most reliable method for age estimation among three variables, that is, condylar height, length of mandibular body and third molar calcification by Demirjian's method. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomograms and lateral cephalograms of 60 patients with equal gender ratio were included in the study, among each gender 15 subjects were below 18 years and 15 subjects were above 18 years. Lateral cephalograms were traced, height of condyle and mandibular body are measured manually on the tracing paper, OPG's were observed on radiographic illuminator and maturity score of third molar calcification was noted according to Demirjian's method. All the measurements were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The results obtained are of no significant difference between estimated age and actual age with all three parameters (P > 0.9780 condylar height, P > 0.9515 length of mandibular body, P > 0.8611 third molar calcification). Among these three, length of mandibular body shows least standard error test (i.e. 0.188). Conclusion: Although all three parameters can be used for age estimation, length of mandibular body is more reliable followed by height of condyle and third molar calcification.
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Proposing national identification number on dental prostheses as universal personal identification code - A revolution in forensic odontology
Rajendra K Baad, Uzma Belgaumi, Nupura Vibhute, Vidya Kadashetti, Pramod Redder Chandrappa, Sushma Gugwad
May-August 2015, 7(2):84-89
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.156138  PMID:26005294
The proper identification of a decedent is not only important for humanitarian and emotional reasons, but also for legal and administrative purposes. During the reconstructive identification process, all necessary information is gathered from the unknown body of the victim and hence that an objective reconstructed profile can be established. Denture marking systems are being used in various situations, and a number of direct and indirect methods are reported. We propose that national identification numbers be incorporated in all removable and fixed prostheses, so as to adopt a single and definitive universal personal identification code with the aim of achieving a uniform, standardized, easy, and fast identification method worldwide for forensic identification.
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