Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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   2017| September-December  | Volume 9 | Issue 3  
    Online since March 15, 2018

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Current trends in forensic odontology
Nadeem Jeddy, Shivani Ravi, T Radhika
September-December 2017, 9(3):115-119
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_85_16  PMID:29657486
Forensic odontology is an evolving science and has a greater scope of development. It has established as an indispensable science in medico-legal matters and in the identification of the dead person. The dental tissues are often preserved even if the deceased person is skeletonized, decomposed, burnt, or dismembered. Various methods have been developed to determine age, sex, and ethnicity of the person, using dental tissues. Data collection methods and supplementary technologies used in forensic dental identification have undergone significant transformation. This article provides an overview of the evolving trends in conventional methods, and the recent concepts used in forensic odontology.
  3,767 630 -
Virtopsy: An integration of forensic science and imageology
T Isaac Joseph, KL Girish, Pradeesh Sathyan, M Shashi Kiran, S Vidya
September-December 2017, 9(3):111-114
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_52_16  PMID:29657485
In an era where noninvasive and minimally invasive techniques are heralding medical innovations and health science technology, necrological analysis is not bereft of this wave. Virtopsy is virtual autopsy. It is a new-age complimentary documentation approach to identify and analyze the details of demise. Utilizing virtual autopsy for orofacial forensic examination is an emerging specialty which holds a plethora of potential for future trends in forensic science. Being a noninvasive technique, it is a rapid method which facilitates the medicolegal process and aids in the delivery of justice. The present article is an overview of this emerging methodology.
  2,661 278 -
Anthropometric study using craniofacial features to determine gender in Lucknow population
Ankita Singh, Gadiputi Sreedhar, Jiji George, Abhilasha Shukla, Vaibhav Vashishta, MPS S Negi
September-December 2017, 9(3):120-124
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_61_16  PMID:29657487
Background: Gender is one of the main characteristics analyzed for positive human identification in forensic medicine. The methods involving physical anthropology present high rate of accuracy for human identification and gender estimation. Aim: This study aimed to determine gender through different craniofacial variables using physical anthropometric methods. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 individuals (50 males and 50 females) in Lucknow. Variables studied through physical anthropometry in both the genders were facial height, nasion-to-menton distance, interzygomatic arch width, and intercanthal width using a digital sliding caliper. All the measurements were taken twice. The final value was the average of the two obtained values. Results: Comparing the mean craniofacial features between two genders, t-test revealed significantly higher facial height, pronasale-to-menton distance, and interzygomatic width in males as compared to females, but the mean intercanthal width was found to be the same. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between facial height and pronasale-to-menton distance, facial height and interzygomatic width, pronasale-to-menton distance and interzygomatic width, and interzygomatic width and intercanthal width. Conclusion: The craniofacial features may serve as diagnostic markers for gender identification and can be used interchangeably.
  1,635 223 -
Odontometric sex estimation from clinically extracted molar teeth in a North Indian population sample
Qutsia Tabasum, Jagmahender Singh Sehrawat, Manjit Kaur Talwar, Raj Kamal Pathak
September-December 2017, 9(3):176-176
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_58_16  PMID:29657498
Background: Different dental features have contributed significantly toward sex determination in the forensic anthropological contexts. Population-specific standards (discriminant functions or regression formulae) have been suggested for various population groups to identify the sex of an unknown individual from dental dimensions and other odontometric features. The main purpose of the present investigation was to examine the degree of sexual dimorphism exhibited by the human teeth of North Indians and identify importance as a forensic tool in sex determination. Materials and Methods: The linear and diagonal dimensions were recorded at both crown and cementoenamel junction levels of 58 upper and 72 lower molars of 130 Northwest Indian subjects (73 males and 57 females). The measurements were subjected to appropriate statistical analyses to estimate the sex estimation accuracy from lower and upper molars separately. Results: Univariate analyses revealed that molar teeth had greater dimensions in males than the females and the mesiodistal cervical diameter (MDCV) was found to be the most suitable variable for sex determination of the molars. The classification results were in agreement with the previously conducted studies. The index of sexual dimorphism (ISD) was calculated to be higher in lower molars than the upper molars, and the highest sex differences were observed for MDCV based on the ISD. The overall sex estimation accuracy obtained from multivariate discriminant function analysis and regression analysis of pooled data was 70.0% (74% males, 64.9% females) and 66.9% (78.1% males, 52.6% females), respectively. Conclusions: Odontometrics can play a significant role in establishing the biological identity of an unknown individual even from a single tooth in the absence of other sophisticated molecular or biochemical techniques used for this purpose.
  1,583 140 -
Sex determination from mesiodens of Indian children by amelogenin gene
Mohit Srivastava, Swati Tripathi, Madhusudan Astekar, Deepa Singal, Aditi Srivastava, Pallavi Vashisth
September-December 2017, 9(3):125-129
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_72_16  PMID:29657488
Context: The identification of sex is the first and the foremost step in forensic science. Teeth consist of enamel which is the hardest tissue available in the body, protector of DNA presents in pulp tissue at the time of exposure of tooth to adverse conditions. Teeth can be stated as a sealed box of mystery as it contains various human and bacterial DNA for molecular utilization. Aim and Objective: The aim is to determine sex from mesiodens on the basis of gene identification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Settings and Design: Total number of sample was 8 human-extracted mesiodens. DNA was isolated and was subjected to PCR analysis with use of predesigned primers for amelogenin (AMEL) X and AMEL Y genes. Results: Isolation of genomic and mitochondrial DNA from mesiodens was successful in six samples (75%). In samples, quantity of DNA present was also calculated. Conclusion: Mesiodens are a good source of DNA and are a very useful tool in identification of sex using PCR analysis which was simple and effective. Hence, the procedure presented in the present study can be applied for extraction of DNA and identification of sex for forensic purpose.
  1,617 102 -
The effects of temperature on extracted teeth of different age groups: A pilot study
Renjith George, Wesley Joel Tan, Agnes Liong Shih Yi, Preethy Mary Donald
September-December 2017, 9(3):165-174
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_25_16  PMID:29657495
Context: Type of dentition and age related changes may affect the behavior of dental hard tissues under thermal stress. Aim: This study was conducted to analyze the effects of varying temperatures on extracted teeth of different age groups in a simulated laboratory set up. Settings and Design: Experimental pilot study. Methods and Material: Extracted teeth from three age groups (deciduous, young permanent and adult permanent) were collected and were exposed to three different temperatures (400°C, 700°C and 1000°C) in a laboratory set up. Post-test changes were analyzed visually and radiographically. Results: (1) The colour changes of the teeth may serve as an indicator for the temperature to which they were exposed. (2) Deciduous teeth tolerated thermal stress with lesser morphological changes compared to young and adult permanent teeth. (3) Coronal dentin of elderly permanent teeth appeared to be more resistant to thermal stress compared to that of young permanent teeth. (4) The root portion of the teeth showed better tolerance to temperature while crown was fragmented easily under thermal stress. Conclusion: The age factor and type of the dentition may influence the heat induced changes in teeth. These variables should be taken into consideration while applying comparative dental identification methods where dental hard tissues are exposed to extreme temperatures.
  1,528 137 -
A radiographic survey of agenesis of the third molar: A panoramic study
Nisha Singh, Shrinivas Chaudhari, Rohan Chaudhari, Sagar Nagare, Abhay Kulkarni, Pratik Parkarwar
September-December 2017, 9(3):130-134
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_59_16  PMID:29657489
Purpose: It is a well-known fact that nature tries to eliminate what is not in use. Because of this, the number of certain teeth which are no longer necessary for function are either getting increasingly impacted or are not developing at all. This is especially the case where third molars are concerned. Furthermore, the presence or absence of the third molar is significant to all branches of dentistry and in particular, forensic dentistry. Objectives: The objectives of this study is to assess (1) The prevalence of third molar agenesis in population of age group 18–25 years. (2) The genderwise difference of third molar agenesis. (3) The difference between maxilla and mandible. Materials and Methods: Dental patients, who are advised or referred for orthopantomograph, visited to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology were included in the study. The study population comprised 300 patients. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. SPSS version 17 software was used for the analysis of the data. The Chi-square test was used for the same. Results: The incidence of agenesis of the third molar is significantly higher for tooth number 18 (P < 0.001). Overall, it is significantly higher among females compared to the males (P < 0.001) in our study population. Conclusion: (1) The present study reports 46.7% agenesis of the third molar. (2) The frequency of third molar agenesis was found significantly greater in the females. (3) Third molar agenesis showed a greater predilection in maxilla compared to mandible.
  1,449 155 -
Stereomicroscopic study on unsectioned extracted teeth
V Keerthi Narayan, VK Varsha, HC Girish, Sanjay Murgod
September-December 2017, 9(3):157-164
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_43_16  PMID:29657494
Introduction: Age has been considered as a reliable marker for establishing the identity of a person in the field of forensic medicine. Teeth are useful skeletal indicators of age at death since it can survive for decades. Nondestructive methods ensure the evident preservation of dental hard tissues that reflect age changes from the cradle to the grave. Therefore, an attempt was made for estimating the age using the nondestructive method. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study to assess whether physiological changes of the teeth allow possible correlation for accurate age estimation and to establish a graduation standard by microscopic observation for a better age correlation. Materials and Methods: The study was carried on 209 teeth samples extracted for orthodontic treatment or periodontal diseases comprised both maxillary and mandibular teeth across different age groups. The assessment of these changes was carried out by well-established standard methods with some proposed modifications. Results: Pearson correlation analyses revealed root dentin translucency with the highest correlation (r = 0.97) followed by periodontal ligament attachment (r = 0.95), root dentin color (r = 0.95), and attrition being the least correlated (r = 0.90). All the parameters taken for the study contributed to stepwise linear regression analysis (R = 0.98; P < 0.01) indicating a strongly positive relationship between age and the changes observed. A regression formula was obtained with mean error age difference ±1.0 years. Conclusion: The present study showed that extracted tooth is highly significant in identifying the age without being sectioned or further processed and also signifies the use of microscope for observation of these changes, thus reducing the errors of calibrating the age.
  1,412 174 -
Mandibular canine index: A study for gender determination in Gandhinagar population
Roseline Ankit Patel, Anjani Ramchandra Chaudhary, Bhavin Bipinchandra Dudhia, Zonty Sylvestor Macwan, Purv Shashank Patel, Yesha Vijaykumar Jani
September-December 2017, 9(3):135-143
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_64_16  PMID:29657490
Introduction: One of the important pieces of information gathered from tooth analysis is the sex of an individual. In most human living populations, mandibular canines show the greatest dimorphism and greatest dimensional differences between males and females. In view of these facts, the aim of this study was to establish the standard mandibular canine index (MCI) and estimate the sexual dimorphism in the population of Gandhinagar district of Gujarat state. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 400 subjects, 200 males and 200 females in the age group of 20–40 years. The mesiodistal (MD) width of the right and left canine and the intercanine distance were measured. These values were used to derive the MCI and establish the amount of sexual dimorphism exhibited by the mandibular canine. Results: The MD crown width of the permanent mandibular right and left canines as well as mandibular intercanine distance of the males was found to be larger in size than in the females. The right mandibular canine exhibited 8.42% of sexual dimorphism while the left mandibular canine exhibited 8.40% of sexual dimorphism. The intercanine distance showed 2.75% of sexual dimorphism. The value of standard MCI derived using the formula devised by Rao et al. was 0.254 mm for the population residing in the Gandhinagar district. Conclusion: The present study supports the usefulness of the MCI in gender determination. The method of using mandibular canine indices is advantageous as it is easy, rapid, and cost-effective, requires no elaborate apparatus, and is suited for situations where large a number of samples have to be analyzed.
  1,346 128 -
Age estimation using exfoliative cytology and radiovisiography: A comparative study
Shilpa Nallamala, Venkateswara Rao Guttikonda, Praveen Kumar Manchikatla, Sravya Taneeru
September-December 2017, 9(3):144-148
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_39_16  PMID:29657491
Introduction: Age estimation is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of an individual. Among various methods, exfoliative cytology (EC) is a unique, noninvasive technique, involving simple, and pain-free collection of intact cells from the oral cavity for microscopic examination. Objective: The study was undertaken with an aim to estimate the age of an individual from the average cell size of their buccal smears calculated using image analysis morphometric software and the pulp–tooth area ratio in mandibular canine of the same individual using radiovisiography (RVG). Materials and Methods: Buccal smears were collected from 100 apparently healthy individuals. After fixation in 95% alcohol, the smears were stained using Papanicolaou stain. The average cell size was measured using image analysis software (Image-Pro Insight 8.0). The RVG images of mandibular canines were obtained, pulp and tooth areas were traced using AutoCAD 2010 software, and area ratio was calculated. The estimated age was then calculated using regression analysis. Results: The paired t-test between chronological age and estimated age by cell size and pulp–tooth area ratio was statistically nonsignificant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: In the present study, age estimated by pulp–tooth area ratio and EC yielded good results.
  1,209 180 -
Age estimation in Indian adults by the coronal pulp cavity index
Vaishali Vasant Koranne, Amit A Mhapuskar, Swati P Marathe, Sameer A Joshi, Rashmi S Saddiwal, Shams Ul Nisa
September-December 2017, 9(3):177-177
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_60_16  PMID:29657499
Background: Age estimation from tooth coronal index (TCI) using intraoral periapical radiographs by paralleling technique based on a reduction in the size of the dental pulp cavity with advancing age as a result of secondary dentin deposition. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to estimate age for Indian adults using radiographs of mandibular first molar and second premolar teeth using coronal pulp cavity index. Materials and Methods: The study material consists of 400 intraoral periapical radiographs of mandibular second premolar and mandibular first molar from enrolled participants of either gender in the age group of 20–60 years. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to find the correlation between age (years) and TCI. Results: TCI was computed for each tooth and regressed on the real age of the sample. The correlation coefficient “r” was −0.865 (for premolar combined sample) and −0.850 (for molar combined sample). The obtained equations were tested on test sample of fifty teeth and age was determined. The absolute mean error between actual and predicted age for premolars was 6.72 months and for molars, it was 9 months. Conclusion: Age estimation using TCI is a precise, noninvasive, less time-consuming, and an inexpensive method.
  1,218 164 -
Estimation and quantification of human DNA in dental calculus: A pilot study
Udita Singh, Saurabh Goel
September-December 2017, 9(3):149-152
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_94_16  PMID:29657492
Context: Identification using DNA has proved its accuracy multiple times in the field of forensic investigations. Investigators usually rely on either teeth or bone as the DNA reservoirs. However, there are instances where the skeletal or dental remains are not available or not preserved properly. Moreover, due to religious beliefs, the family members of the dead do not allow the investigating team to damage the remains for the sole purpose of identification. Aim: To investigate the presence of human DNA in dental calculus and to quantify the amount, if present. Materials and Methods: This prospective single-blinded pilot study included twenty subjects selected from the patients visiting a dental college. The samples of dental calculus were collected from the thickest portion of calculus deposited on the lingual surfaces of mandibular incisors. These samples were decontaminated and subjected to gel electrophoresis for DNA extraction. Results: DNA was found in 85% cases. The amount of DNA varied from 21 to 37 μg/ml of dental calculus. Conclusion: Dental calculus is a rich reservoir of human DNA.
  1,228 106 -
Evaluation of sexual dimorphism in arch depth and palatal depth in 500 young adults of Marathwada region, India
Pritam Kumar Mankapure, Suresh R Barpande, Jyoti D Bhavthankar
September-December 2017, 9(3):153-156
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_13_16  PMID:29657493
Context: In exhibiting gender dimorphism, the bony pelvis and skull give the most reliable results from morphometric analysis. Palatal dimensions were reported to exhibit racial difference and sexual dimorphism in several studies. Aim: The aim of the present study was to measure the maxillary arch depth and palatal depth in Indian population to assess their use as a tool for sexual dimorphism. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty males and 250 females in the age group of 17–25 years were enrolled in the study, and impressions of maxillary arch were made. Measurement of palatal depth and maxillary arch depth was carried out at specific reference points using Korkhaus compass and digital caliper, respectively. The comparison of maxillary arch depth and palatal depth values was done using independent t-test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Diagnostic performance of significantly different variable was quantified by plotting “receiver operating characteristic” (ROC) curve. Results: Arch depth mean values were significantly higher in males than females. However, palatal depth mean values, though higher in males, were not significant. Area under the curve in ROC curve for maxillary arch depth was found to be 0.76, indicating sufficiency of discriminatory power of this variable. Conclusion: The present study showed that maxillary arch depth can be used as a tool for sex determination along with other morphometric methods. Mean value of both maxillary arch depth and palatal depth can be used as the baseline value for given population to be used as a reference for further studies.
  1,206 107 -
Denture labels: Various types and their abilities to resist different assaults
Rashmi G S. Phulari, Rajendrasinh S Rathore, Prachi Nitin Jariwala, Aalap D Kapuriya, Arpan K Shah
September-December 2017, 9(3):175-175
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_12_15  PMID:29657497
Introduction: The use of denture labels for the purpose of identification has been well documented. A number of labels for marking the denture are documented till date demonstrating the ease of fabrication and its potential value in identification. Therefore, it becomes essential that these denture labels fulfill the requisites of an ideal denture label and thus should be able to sustain the various assaults to which they might be subjected simulating a crime scene. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the ability of various denture labels to withstand different types of assaults thereby evaluating the performance of routinely used denture labels. Materials and Methods: Four polymethylmethacrylate blocks were fabricated where the inclusion labels were incorporated on one side, and the surface labels were marked on the other side. Each of the blocks was then placed in different containers to be subjected to different assaults such as acid, alkali, water, and heat of increasing temperature. Results: Inclusion labels performed better as compared to surface marking labels. Among the inclusion labels, the metallic labels performed the best. Conclusion: The metallic inclusion labels were able to withstand most assaults than any other inclusion labels or surface marking labels. Due to easy availability, cost-effectiveness, ease of incorporation and inertness, metallic labels are best suited as denture labels for personal identification.
  983 83 -
Applicability of odontometric dimensions and indices in sexual dimorphism among Nalgonda population
Sandipamu Thabitha Rani
September-December 2017, 9(3):175-175
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_42_16  PMID:29657496
Background: Teeth morphology varies among different population groups as they are exposed to various environmental conditions. Teeth being the most stable and hard tissue, human identification can be made when the other tissues are unavailable. Odontometric analysis can be considered for anthropological and forensic investigations. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the reliability of odontometric mesiodistal (MD) width dimensions and indices in sexual dimorphism among Nalgonda population. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 ideal study dental models of patients between the age range of 18 and 25 years were collected from the Department of Orthodontics. Selection criteria include teeth with Class I molar and canine relation, free of anomalies, or caries. Maximum MD widths of all teeth and arch parameters (intercanine width, interpremolar width, and intermolar width) were measured and incisor index, canine index, premolar index, and molar index were calculated. Sexual dimorphism was calculated using Garn and Lewis equation. Statistical Analysis: The recorded data were subjected to statistical analysis using independent unpaired t-test. Results and Conclusion: Mandibular canines followed by maxillary canines showed greater sexual dimorphism among all teeth. Maxillary right canine index, mandibular left canine index, maxillary right incisor index, inter premolar and intermolar widths showed statistically significant difference between males and females (P < 0.05). The results of this study revealed significant sexual dimorphism with the use of odontometric dimensions, canine index, incisor index, and arch parameters. These parameters could be used as adjunctive aids by the forensic expertise in human identification.
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