Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
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   2018| May-August  | Volume 10 | Issue 2  
    Online since January 9, 2019

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Sex determination in forensic identification, a review
Sagar P Nagare, Rohan Shrinivas Chaudhari, Rajendra S Birangane, Pratik C Parkarwar
May-August 2018, 10(2):61-66
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_55_17  PMID:30745778
Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. It is an investigative aspect of dentistry that analyzes dental evidence for human identification. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology, and it is important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters, crime investigations, and ethnic studies. Determination of sex/gender using skeletal remains presents a great problem to forensic experts, especially when only fragments of body are recovered. Forensic odontologist can assist other experts to determine the sex of the remains using teeth and skull traits. Various features of teeth such as morphology, crown size, and root length are characteristics for male and female sexes. There are also differences in the skull pattern and skull traits of two sexes. These will help forensic odontologists to identify the sex of the remains. The library dissertation contents and several articles and books were electronically searched in Google using the keywords “sex determination,” “forensic dentistry,” “sex determination in forensic dentistry.” The contents were screened between 1950 and 2015 by going through the title and abstracts and full-text reading. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the different methods of sex determination.
  2,466 323 -
Digital image fraudulence: A curse to forensic odontology
Geeta Karyakarte, Alka Dive, Ashish Bodhade, Shubhangi Khandekar
May-August 2018, 10(2):67-70
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_16_18  PMID:30745779
In today's era of forensic investigations, hard copies of forensic data have been replaced by digital records. However, wide availability of image processing software makes digital image manipulation an easy and low-cost way to distort or conceal facts. This review article aims to understand fraudulence in the digital records in forensic odontology and the various ways to detect as well as prevent it to an appreciable extent. Types of image fraudulence, ways to detect this fraudulence, and measures to prevent it to an appreciable extent have been discussed. Knowledge about digital image fraudulence, detection, and prevention is the desperate need of the hour in today's technology-driven forensic investigations. This review article attempts to focus on this pestering issue and aid the evolving technologies driven by great needs for valid forensic technique trying to claw out their way through the malignant fraudulence rooted in today's evolving digitization.
  1,553 126 -
Comparison of cheiloscopy, odontometric, and facial index for sex determination in forensic dentistry
K Indra Priyadharshini, M Ambika, B Sekar, V Mohanbabu, B Sabarinath, I Pavithra
May-August 2018, 10(2):88-91
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_102_17  PMID:30745784
Background: The “gender determination” which is an important human identification procedure not only helps in establishing the biological profile from skeletal and dental remains but also in facial reconstruction of unidentified victims. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze predominant types of lip prints (cheiloscopy), accuracy of mandibular canine index (MCI) (odontometric), and facial index in the study population and to identify whether any correlation among the above parameters could help forensic dentistry in solving crimes. Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted in 100 individuals, 50 males and 50 females aged between 20 and 25 years. For each individual, the lip prints, MCI, and facial index measurements were recorded on the same day analyzed by two observers. All the analysis was done using SPSS version 14 assessed using t-test and Chi-square test. Results: Type II pattern of lip prints is observed as common pattern among male and female. There is no significant difference in Odontometric analysis. The mean value of facial index analysis in both genders shows highly significant. Conclusion: A large-scale study is required in order to validate our results to arrive at definitive results and value.
  1,432 173 -
Parastyle cusp: A rare morphologic variant of maxillary second molars
Zoya Chowdhary, Disha Gupta, Ranjana Mohan, Aashima Bajaj
May-August 2018, 10(2):111-115
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_9_17  PMID:30745789
Human jaws and teeth show a high diversity in the morphology, which varies from individual to individual. The variation in the morphologic feature is of great importance in the forensic field for identification. A tubercle or an accessory cusp is rare but is usually seen in the mandibular molar buccal aspect. From a forensic odontologist's point of view, the features though rare and unusual are useful for identification of the victim as well as criminal. The article presents three cases showing this rarest morphologic variation, i.e., the presence of a parastyle on a permanent maxillary second molar.
  1,492 111 -
Mantle of forensics in child sexual abuse
Preethi Murali, Manoj Prabhakar
May-August 2018, 10(2):71-74
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_17_18  PMID:30745780
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is defined as inappropriate adolescent or adult sexual behavior or contact with a child. Sexual abuse may be committed by any person including those under the age of 18 years when that person is either significantly older than the victim or is in a position of power or control over the child. Detecting CSA requires a high incidence of suspicion and familiarity with physical, behavioral, and verbal indications of abuse. Shame and guilt often may have discussion difficult. Studies have shown that approximately 60% of abused children have injuries to head, face, and mouth. Some of the oral and dental features that may be commonly noted in CSA are bruised lips, lacerated mucosa, nonexplainable missing teeth, tongue or frenal injuries, bone fractures in maxillofacial complex, and tooth trauma. It is important to us as dentists to remain vigilant as children depend on adults for protection. Hence, this review will culminate the investigations required by us not only as dentists but also as socially responsible adults.
  1,400 122 -
“Odontometrics:” A need for anthropological data
Jayasankar P Pillai
May-August 2018, 10(2):59-60
DOI:10.4103/0975-1475.249651  PMID:30745777
  1,351 132 -
Selfie identification app as a forensic tool for missing and unidentified persons
Emilio Nuzzolese, Francesco Lupariello, Giancarlo Di Vella
May-August 2018, 10(2):75-78
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_80_17  PMID:30745781
Social media applications can be valuable investigative tools in the search for missing and unidentified persons. As yet, no forensic App exists with the aim of assisting the human identification process, through the search of antemortem data to be used as adjunct data in the comparison with postmortem data collected. The aim of this article is to introduce a new application for Smartphones called “Selfie Forensic ID” App which will employ selfie and face photographs as an archive of dental data and dental features of the front teeth of missing persons sharing with Instagram, Tumblr, and Twitter Social Networks (available for free download from both Android and Apple store at Features such as diastema rotated or wrongly positioned teeth, lip anomalies, recognizable fixed prosthetics, dental crown discolorations, dental or cutis piercing could represent strong identifiers in the comparison of AM and PM data. The increased number of terrorist attacks and natural disasters which result in the premature death of innocent people underlines the importance of storing personal identification data to avoid bodies remaining unidentified. The authors believe there will be an increased public willingness to share personal ID information through understanding of the ethical and administrative consequences to the families of deceased persons should bodies remain unidentified.
  1,291 160 -
Sex determination from tooth pulp deoxyribonucleic acid using polymerase chain reaction
Ruchi Kishor Pawar, Chandramani B More
May-August 2018, 10(2):107-110
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_67_16  PMID:30745788
Introduction: In this fast era of numerous unwanted disasters and because of the severely devastated and degenerated body remains, personal identification of unknown remains has become the most difficult and challenging task. In such instances, dental pulp plays a vital role in identification through deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Aim: The aim of the study is to determine sex from tooth pulp tissues by DNA analysis using polymerase chain reaction amplification method under different environmental conditions. Materials and Methods: The human extracted teeth were exposed to different conditions such as heat, soil, and open environment. The DNA was extracted from all these teeth including freshly extracted teeth, then quantified, and further amplified with male and female primers. Results: Quantity of DNA content achieved ranged from 5.21 to 62.87 ng/μl. The accuracy in determining sex from pulp DNA ranged from 92% to 100% in the study groups, except from the teeth exposed to uncontrolled heat, as the pulp tissue was burnt completely. The intergroup analysis was statistically highly significant (P < 0.001). Gender determination using the quantity of DNA was found to be nonsignificant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The dental pulp is the reliable source for sex determination in the humid or dry environment compared to uncontrolled heat.
  1,300 126 -
Age estimation by cemental annulation rings
N Mohan, Sabitha Gokulraj, Merlyn Thomas
May-August 2018, 10(2):79-83
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_79_15  PMID:30745782
Context: Tooth plays a pivotal role in the identification of a person when all other remains are ruined by natural or unnatural causes. Dental evidence can contribute to age estimation in forensic dentistry. Estimating the age of an individual with the help of a tooth for identification proves beneficial. Alternating light and dark bands seen on the cementum have been shown to be proportionate to the age of the patient in number. This was done to evaluate the cementum annulation in age determination. Aims: This study aimed to determine the age of an individual using tooth cementum annulation. Materials and Methods: In this study, twenty extracted teeth were collected and all the clinical details of the patient such as age, sex, and chief complaint were recorded. The collected teeth was preserved in formalin overnight and then washed under tap water before they were sectioned. The area selected for counting was observed under 10 × objective of light microscope, and photomicrographs were taken for the counting of the lines. At the time of analysis, the age of the patient was not disclosed to the observer. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: This study showed the correlation between the actual age of the individual and the estimated age using tooth cementum annulation method and showed significant statistical value. Conclusion: Incremental lines found in cementum can be used for age estimation in forensic dentistry.
  1,235 138 -
Evaluation of occlusal groove morphology of primary mandibular second molar in an Indian population
A Ahsana, Ganesh Jeevanandan, E M G Subramanian
May-August 2018, 10(2):92-95
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_38_18  PMID:30745785
Background: The study of morphology of dentition can provide information on the phylogenetic relationship between species and diversities among population. There is a difference in opinions regarding influence of ethnicity on dental morphology. Using quantitative methods, few studies have shown the associations between these dental features and crown traits in humans. The present study is to find the correlation between the occlusal morphology and forensic anthropological research. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of different types of primary mandibular second molars in South Indian which can be used in forensic anthropological research. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 276 children in Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu. Screening for the number of cusps and groove patterns of primary mandibular second molars was done by direct intraoral examination. Statistical Analysis: It was done with the help of IBM. SPSS statistics software 23.0 version. To find the significance in categorical data, Chi-square test was used. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Primary mandibular second molars with 5 cusps were observed in 96.4% of population, 4 cusps in 1.8%, and 6 cusps in 1.8% which were noted in the study. Mandibular second molars with “+” groove pattern in 33% of population and “Y” groove pattern in 67% of population were recorded. 5Y pattern was the most frequently observed occlusal pattern in these population, which is a primitive type of occlusal groove pattern. Conclusion: The study of dental morphology and odontometry is important in the field of forensic and anthropological research. It helps to understand the phylogenetic relationships among species and also to study the diversities within a population. This study revealed a primitive type of occlusal morphology in the population studied.
  1,168 113 -
Correlation and estimation of stature from cephalofacial measurements: A study on Western Uttar Pradesh population
Munish Reddy, Vandana Reddy, Vijay Wadhwan, Arvind Venkatesh
May-August 2018, 10(2):101-106
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_30_16  PMID:30745787
Background: Identification of an individual from fragmented remains is still a very challenging task for forensic experts in spite of the many studies which have been carried out till date, across the globe. Stature, one of the criteria of personal identification, has a definite and proportional biological relationship with every part of the human body which includes the cephalofacial (CF) region. At instances, where only CF remains are available, it becomes difficult for the forensic scientist to identify the deceased since there is a paucity of studies pertaining to the estimation of stature from CF dimensions. Results from such a study can be used as database for forensic investigations and other anthropometric studies. Aim: To estimate stature of an individual using data derived from CF measurements. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 540 representative candidates (270 males and 270 females) in the age group of 20–25 years. Stature (S) and CF measurements (maximum head length [MHL], maximum head breadth [MHB], horizontal circumference of head [HHC], bigonial diameter [BGD], and morphological facial length [MFL]) of each candidate were recorded and tabulated. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Statistics v. 19.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) for the CF dimensions obtained. Comparisons were made between the CF measurements recorded with respect to the gender using statistical mean, standard deviation, range, and Pearson's correlation coefficient, and linear regression equation of height to the parameters recorded was derived. Results: Findings suggest that all the CF measurements are significantly correlated with stature (P < 0.01). MHL, MHB, and HHC show higher correlation coefficients (r value) when compared to MFL and BGD. The CF measurements arranged in descending order based on their r value is HHC > MHL > MHB > MFL > BGD. In general, head measurements show lower values of standard error of estimate (SEE) compared to facial measurements. Among both sexes, HHC shows the least and BGD shows the highest SEE value when compared to all the other CF measurements. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the recommended anthropometric measurements provided serve as a template and confirm that there are geographical and sexual dimorphism in anthropometric parameters; therefore, these should be considered in forensic or criminal investigations.
  1,182 90 -
Root Length: As a determinant tool of sexual dimorphism in an ethnic Tamil population
Divyalakshmi Govindaram, R Bharanidharan, R Ramya, A Rameshkumar, N Priyadharsini, K Rajkumar
May-August 2018, 10(2):96-100
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_10_18  PMID:30745786
Background: Sexual dimorphism in teeth has been an area of research for forensic anthropologists. The function of root in transmitting the forces of occlusion to the alveolar bone varies as the force in males tends to be larger than in females. This shows the significance of the root length as indicators of sexual dimorphism. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the presence of sexual dimorphism in the root lengths of permanent teeth and to evaluate if root length could be instrumental in defining sexual dimorphism among an ethnic Tamil population. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomograms of 1000 individuals (500 males and 500 females) were utilized, and the measurement of root length of permanent maxillary and mandibular teeth from canine to first molar on all four quadrants using the Digital software SCANORA 5.2.6. was carried out. Statistical analysis including descriptive statistics and independent Student t-test were performed. Results: In this study, the sexual dimorphism in root length is observed in 13, 14, 15, 16, 23, 26, 33, 36, 43, and 46 (mesial), and there is a statistically significant difference between the root measurements of males and females (P < 0.05). Most dimorphic teeth were maxillary canines and mandibular canines. Conclusion: The data generated from this study suggest that the root length measurements present with a substantial evidence of sexual dimorphism emphasizing its importance on identifying sex and are therefore useful in determining the biological profile.
  1,143 113 -
A comparative evaluation between cheiloscopic patterns and canine relationship in primary dentition
R Vignesh, David Ditto Sharmin
May-August 2018, 10(2):84-87
DOI:10.4103/jfo.jfds_21_17  PMID:30745783
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between different cheiloscopic patterns with the canine relationship in deciduous dentition. Materials and Methods: Three-hundred children who were 3–6 years old with complete primary dentition were recruited and the relationships between maxillary and mandibular canines were recorded in the pro forma. Lip prints of the patients were recorded with the lipstick-cellophane method, and middle 10 mm of the lower lip was analyzed for the lip print pattern. The patterns were classified based on the Tsuchihashi and Suzuki classification. Results: Type II (branched) pattern was the most predominant cheiloscopic pattern. The predominant patterns which related to the terminal planes were Type IV (reticular) pattern for Class I, Type IV (reticular) and I (complete vertical) patterns for Class II, and the presence of Type V (irregular) pattern for Class III. Presence of Type I (complete vertical) and II (branched) patterns in males and Type II (branched) pattern alone in females can suggest for a Class II canine relationship. Conclusion: Lip prints can provide an alternative to dermatoglyphics to predict the canine relationship in primary dentition. Further studies with larger sample size are required to provide an insight into its significant correlations.
  1,080 95 -