Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Users Online: 861 
Home Print this page  Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Wide layoutNarrow layoutFull screen layout
  Home | About JFDS | Editorial Board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Online submission | Contact us | Advertise | Login 

Year : 2009  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 17-23 Table of Contents     

Effects of high temperatures on different dental restorative systems: Experimental study to aid identification processes

1 Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Research Group (Dental Anthropology and Forensic Dentistry Research Line) of the Dentistry School, University of Valle, Colombia
2 Dental Materials Unit, Department of Odontostomatology, University of Pavia, Italy
3 Specialized Identification Laboratory, General Office of the Public Prosecutor of the Nation, Colombia

Correspondence Address:
Freddy Moreno
Universidad del Valle, Escuela de Odontologa, Calle 4B No. 36-00 Edificio 132 Oficina 308, A. A. 25360, Cali
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-2948.50883

Rights and Permissions

This "in vitro" study was to observe the effects of high temperatures on teeth restored by (1) amalgam overlaying glass ionomer bases, (2) composite/adhesive system overlaying glass ionomer bases, (3) ZnO modified temporary filling material vs. unrestored teeth.
Fifty un-restored teeth (control group), 50 teeth with class I amalgam restorations and glass ionomer bases, 50 teeth with class I composite/adhesive system restorations and glass ionomer bases and 50 teeth with class I ZnO modified temporary filling material restorations were placed in a furnace and heated at a rate of 10C/min. The effects of the predetermined 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200C temperatures were examined macroscopically and then observed microscopically by means of a stereomicroscope.
Our observations showed that the class I restorations made of amalgam on glass ionomer bases as far as the class I restorations made of ZnO modified temporary filling material can be identified till 1200C because they maintain their shape despite the disintegration of the crowns, whilst the class I composite/adhesive system and the underplayed glass ionomer bases remained in place in an altered shape.

Keywords: Dental identification, dental materials, dental tissues, forensic odontology, forensic sciences, high temperatures

How to cite this article:
Moreno S, Merlati G, Marin L, Savio C, Moreno F. Effects of high temperatures on different dental restorative systems: Experimental study to aid identification processes. J Forensic Dent Sci 2009;1:17-23

How to cite this URL:
Moreno S, Merlati G, Marin L, Savio C, Moreno F. Effects of high temperatures on different dental restorative systems: Experimental study to aid identification processes. J Forensic Dent Sci [serial online] 2009 [cited 2021 Jan 18];1:17-23. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Historically teeth and dental materials were studied to aid the identification process of human remains: particularly forensic odontology has shown to be useful when a damage caused by the heat occurred. [1],[2],[3] In fact, teeth are the components of the body that often survive severe fires because of their high resistant composition and also because they are protected by the soft and hard tissues of the face and other materials or elements which may be present. [4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13]

Norrlander [14] classified body burns in five categories: (1) superficial burns, (2) destroyed epidermis areas, (3) destruction of the epidermis and dermis and necrosis areas in underlying tissues, (4) total destruction of the skin and deep tissues and (5) burned remains. Since the destruction of burned victims of the third, fourth and fifth category, is extensive, such remains cannot be identified by conventional methods like visual recognition or fingerprints. In these cases the odontologists are called to assist the identification by means of a comparison between the postmortem records of the burned, charred or incinerated individual teeth and the antemortem clinical history supported by the oral-maxillo-facial system. [6],[15]

Under this situation, when the postmortem conditions of the evidence or the quality and quantity of the antemortem information are no effective on the identification process of burned victims, the usage of other methods applied on certain dental specific tissues exposed to high temperatures is very limited. [16],[17],[18]

From experimental literature, macroscopic color variations of unrestored teeth could be related to the temperature rise and time of application, from natural color through black, brown, blue, gray, white and finally pink; then, it was relieved that the temperature levels and the combustion time were inversely proportional to the rate of color changes. [19] Color change from light yellow to bluish-white, passing through brown, were pointed out also by Merlati et al. and Muller et al. , when unrestored teeth are exposed to temperatures in the range of 150-1150C. [10],[20]

At the same temperature range, microscopic variations of unrestored teeth could be detected by SEM, and the enamel and dentin could be identifiable after an exposure temperature of 1000C for periods greater than 3 hours. [21] But, Muller et al. , pointed out that, in the same conditions, the prismatic structure of the enamel was difficult to identify above the 1100C while the dentin tubules were identifiable at 1150C. [20]

Macroscopic behaviour of dental restorative materials at the range 200-1000C was performed by Robinson et al. They pointed out that glass ionomers were decomposed at 200C, while the compomers, and three different composite materials were deeply altered at 200-500C. [22] Microscopic behaviour of dental restorative materials were studied by Bush et al ., where they identificated the remains of ten different composite materials after a 900C exposure for 30 minutes by EDS-SEM. [23] But these studies were performed on samples of restorative materials.

First experimental studies on restored teeth were performed by Merlati et al. and Savio et al. , which reported on teeth filled by amalgam or composite exposed to temperature between 200-1100C. They pointed out that a macroscopic observation could identify composite fillings till 800C and amalgam fillings till 1000C. [10],[24],[25] The same experience was performed also by Bose et al. that studied amalgam, composite and glass ionomers. [23] But this studies did not involved bases under restorative materials neither temporary fillings, so the aim of this study was to observe the effects of high temperatures (200-400-600-800-1000-1200C) on teeth restored by (1) amalgam on glass ionomer bases, (2) composite/adhesive system on glass ionomer bases, (3) ZnO modified temporary filling material vs. unrestored teeth.

   Materials and Methods Top

200 teeth (premolars and third molars), extracted for orthodontic and periodontal purposes, no showing any cavities, restorations, endodontic treatments, pulpar pathology and congenital malformations, were collected once the research was approved by the Ethics in Humans Committee of the Universidad del Valle in comply with Article 11 of Resolution 008430 of the Colombian Republic Social Protection Ministry [26] and the ethic principles for medical investigations in human beings indicated by the World Medical Association in Helsinki's Declaration. [27] After the authorization from the School of Dentistry directives and patients signature, the samples were collected at the Oral Surgery Clinic from the Odontology School of the Universidad del Valle.

After the extraction, every tooth was washed with non sterile water to eliminate blood residues and introduced in a dark container with a disinfection solution T Chloramine at 5% (100 grams of sodic Tosilcloramine diluted in 2 liters of distillated water) for one week. Later, the teeth were stored in a 0,9 % sodium chloride aqueous solution, at room temperature, with a relative humidity of 100%, changing the solution every 2 weeks according to the ISO/TS 11405/2003. [28]

The 200 teeth were divided in 4 groups of 50 teeth as follows: Group 1 consisted of unrestored teeth as control group, Group 2 consisted of teeth restored with amalgam fillings (GS-80 SDI ) on glass ionomer base (Vitrebond 3M-ESPE), Group 3 consisted of teeth restored with composite/adhesive system (Z100 /Single Bond 3M-ESPE ) on glass ionomer base (Vitrebond 3M-ESPE), and Group 4 consisted of teeth restored with ZnO modified temporary filling material (Coltosol Coltene-Whaledent ). An operator proceeded to make a Class I cavity on the samples by a high speed diamond bur at a depth of 3 mm, mesiodistal lenght of 3 mm and bucolingual lenght of 2 mm. The cavity was disinfected by a 12% hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution. Then, the teeth were restored following the producers and manufacturer's instructions at the state of the art.

Once fillings were performed, teeth were set in individual custom made trays made of dental investment material (Cera-Fina Whipmix ) to facilitate their manipulation according to the prototype established by the Dental materials Unit of Odontostomatology Department of Pavia University (Italy), and they were exposed to direct heat inside an oven with a muffler chamber (Thermolyne ) previously calibrated to six different temperature degrees (200C, 400C, 600C, 800C, 1000C and 1200C) at an increasing rate of 10C per minute. As soon as each target temperature was reached, the samples were removed from the oven and allowed to cool to room temperature. Once they were cold, they were sprayed with hair shellac with the purpose of giving them certain degree of resistance and facilitate their handling. [6],[15]

An examiner observed and described the macro structural changes of the dental tissues and materials by direct vision of the samples; finally some images were taken by a digital camera (Olympus C3000).

   Results Top

Group 1

At 200C there is a loss of brightness on the enamel and cement; on the crown some parts showed a slight brownish color and some cusps turn white [Figure 1]. At 400C the crown showed a darkest tonality, enamel fissures particularly in the cervical area, and the cement acquired a brown color [Figure 2]. At 600C the crown presented a dark brown color with black stains, separation of the enamel-dentine interface at the level of the cervical margin, longitudinal cracks of the enamel and the cement; at the root level can be observed longitudinal cracks and a brown color of the cement. At 800C the crown was gray with the cusps colored white, the cement showed a blue-gray color [Figure 3]. At 1000C in some teeth there was a fragmentation of the enamel, the dentine showed a white color with blue-gray stains, and the cement turned to a chalky white color with cracks [Figure 4]. At 1200C the enamel and the dentine were fragmented in most of the samples and longitudinal and transversal cracks of the root were observed. In some teeth exposition of the pulp chamber was observed, allowing the identification of changes like pulp calcinations and inner transversal cracks of the dentine continuing in the root.

Group 2

At 200C and at 400C the amalgam showed an alteration of the marginal seal, loss of brightness and bubbles on the surface [Figure 1] and [Figure 5]. At 600C the amalgam showed an opaque black color and an increased alteration of the marginal seal. At 800C the amalgam showed a corrugated surface with fissures between amalgam and dental tissues [Figure 6]. At 1000C there were some cracks in the black filling amalgam [Figure 7]. At 1200C a fragmentation of the crown in more than half of the samples was observed. The black colored amalgam presented fractures and cracks.

Group 3

At 200C the composite filling showed marginal retraction and brown color. At 400C there was an increase in the marginal retraction [Figure 8]. At 600C the color of the composite turned black-grayish, some cracks appeared and a dislodgement of the obturation in some teeth occurred [Figure 9]. At 800C the composite showed a chalky white color; in most of the samples there was a dislodgment of the fillings and exposition of the glass ionomer bases, which showed a black color, with cracks and marginal retraction [Figure 10]. At 1000C the crown acquires a dark gray color; in a half of the samples, enamel pulverization and root fracture occurred, so the exposed dentine is white with gray-bluish stains. At 1200C the crown changes to a white-grayish color and in most of the sample a dislodgment of the filling occurred [Figure 11].

Group 4

At 200C the teeth showed cracks on the surface and dimensional expansion of the ZnO modified temporary fillings for water evaporation, growth of crystals and air capture. At 400C a break of the cervical enamel occurred; then, we observed longitudinal fissures on the enamel, and brown color of the fillings [Figure 12]. At 600C the zinc oxide cement was dark gray with cracks and dimensional contraction by several losses of water, fracture of some crystals and agglomerated particles of zinc. At 800C the material was chalky white and one third of the samples showed a dislodgment of the fillings. At 1000C the temporary cement showed a white chalk color and cracks, but in the large amount of the samples a dislodgment of the fillings occurred. At 1200C samples fragmentation of enamel and dentine, and transversal cracks on the root occurred [Figure 13].

   Discussion Top

Within the behavior of the tissues and dental restorations observed in this research, the change of color was the most common characteristic for each range of temperature, and this was directly related with the level of carbonization and incineration of teeth. In the unrestored teeth, the crown turned to a bright brown color at 200C, therefore the changes of color in the crown were from dark brown at 400C, brown with black pigments at 600C, gray with black pigments at 800C, gray at 1000C and gray with white veins at 1200C (this veins are generated by enamel incomplete incineration, which lost its translucent aspect). In the same way, the roots changed their color from dark brown between 400C and 600C, white-bluish at 800C and white chalk between 1000C and 1200C. All of these changes of color were also described by Merlati et al.; [10],[24] the loss of enamel brightness was also recorded by Gunther and Schdmidt -quoted by Rφtzscher et al., [11] as "invisible carbonization".

In relation to the dental restorations, the amalgam at 200C and 400C lost its shine due to the mercury evaporation [10] and showed an opaque black color from 600C [Figure 6].

At higher temperatures, we recorded a silvered metallic shine on the roots probably due to a mercury deposition as defined by Gunther and Schmidt [11] Merlati et al. , [10],[24] described pink pigments on the roots and crowns between 1000C and 1100C, same as it appeared in this research, but at microscopic observation these pigments were seen in the enamel around the amalgam between 600C and 1200C [Figure 6]. By the same microscopic observation, it was possible for us to observe pink pigments in the cavity dentine at 600C and in the cement at 800C. Such phenomenon was supposed to be due to volatile copper oxides at 450C. [29],[30] Another important feature referring to color in amalgam restored teeth is the formation of a golden thread that surrounds the occlusal surface and the cusps between 800C and 1200C [Figure 6]; we supposed that this phenomenon was associated to mercury oxide vapors in reddish and yellowish tones or copper oxides and silver oxides from the 962C. [29],[30],[31]

The composite restorations turned to a bright brown color with white veins at 400C [Figure 8], as described by Merlati et al., like yellowish brown [24] and then increased its shine. At 600C the resin changed to a grayish black color (given by gray veins) [Figure 9], due to the acrylic matrix combustion, according to Merlati et al.; [10] then, a white chalk color [Figure 10] was observed starting from 800 o C up to 1200C.

Finally, the ZnO modified cement changed its color at 600C, turning dark gray, and being more dazzling at 1000C [Figure 12] and [Figure 13], such as referred by Gunther and Schmidt. [11]

In all the unrestored teeth, fissures were observed in the enamel starting from 400C, which turned in cracks at 600C as it was described by Gunther and Schdmit [11] and by Nossintchoux. -quoted by Moya et al. [1] as far as the crown remains at 1200C [Figure 4]. The enamel fragmentation is described starting at 600C and its disintegration in some teeth at 1200C. In the tooth's cement we observed fissures at 400C and cracks starting from 600C until 1200C; furthermore, we observed longitudinal cracks that continue to the root dentine and cause in some specimens fragmentation of the roots, which coincides with the description by Merlati et al. [10] and that in many cases caused root fracture lines. But, Nossintchoux described root fissures and cracking of the roots starting from 175C. [1]

In the restored teeth, we observed cracks on the dentine that continued from the enamel and the cement, and which became visible by the fracture of the crown and of the root starting from 600C. In the same way, as long as the exposition to high temperatures continues, the dental tissues lost their integrity, and so at 800C the carbonization caused a decrease in the root volume [1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24],[25] [Figure 11] and [Figure 13] and in the crown a separation of the enamel in form of a skullcap, phenomena that occurred in some specimens from 800C until 1200C [Figure 13]. Gunther and Schmidt [11] in their studies reported that this separation occurred at 400C, while Merlati et al., [10] described it starting from 800C. It was possible, in some specimens between 400C and 800C to observe remains of the incinerated pulp tissue, finding that was described by Gunther and Schdmidt. [11] For this, restored teeth appeared to show cracks and crown shattering at lower temperatures compared with unrestored teeth.

At 200C the amalgams and composite fillings showed a marginal contraction probably due to the evaporation of the mercury and loss of the organic matrix, as it was described by Moya et al. and Merlati et al. [1],[10] At 400C all the permanent restorative systems showed a marginal contraction, while the ZnO modified cement showed an expansion. In the amalgam fillings, cracks were observed since 600C, and starting from 800C the cracks become macroscopically visible until 1200C. Some specimens showed fractures of the fillings starting from 600C and dislodgment of it since the 1000C, similar to Merlati et al. [24] As for the resin, they observed cracks starting from 600C and up to 1200C. Some specimens showed dislodgment of the fillings since the 600C and fractures at 1000C. The ZnO modified cement showed cracks starting from 200C, dislodgment since 800C and fractures at 1000C [Figure 12].

Concerning the fillings surface, between 200C and 400C, the amalgam showed a corrugated or blistered surface in all of the teeth, which was due to the apparition of small nodules by alloy dissociation [Figure 5], where the mercury evaporated through gaseous bubbles, which form blisters or nodules when temperature decreases. This condition is also reported by Merlati et al., at 200C. [10] It is important to mention that the nodules vary their size when the temperature increases until the mercury evaporates completely from the alloy in an boiling rank that goes from 39C up to 360C; [1] from then on the evaporated mercury drags silver particles, that from 800C confirm what Gunther and Schmidt. called "silver bullets" [11] [Figure 7]. The composite fillings turned corrugated when temperature increases until they incinerated at 1000C [Figure 10]. The modified zinc oxide turned also corrugated [Figure 12] and [Figure 13].

We would like to emphasize that the glass ionomer bases did not affected the identification of the restorations because no delamination and/or mixing phenomenon were observed.

Our study did not take into account possible variables present in reality such as the protection provided by the soft and hard tissues surrounding dental elements and/or dental appliances present in the mouth. Such structures protect the teeth from direct exposure to fire that would otherwise produce an early catastrophic evaporation of the organic component with consequent separation of the crowns. In our experiments such a phenomenon was observed above 800C. In our experiments, once the pre-determined temperatures were reached, the samples were removed from the oven and allowed to cool at room temperature. The materials were therefore subjected to only one controlled and limited thermal shock. In reality many factors may further complicate the effect of the fire on the tissues and materials such as the time of exposure to the fire, the type of fire, the speed of increase in temperature as well as the substances used to the extinguish the fire. All of these factors need to be considered in evaluating the specimens for forensic analysis.

   References Top

1.Moya V, Roldan B, Sαnchez JA. Materiales dentales en la identificación. In: Odontologνa legaly forense. Barcelona: Editorial Masson, 1994. p. 269-76.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Guerra AS. Odontoestomatologνa forense. Santa fe de Bogotα: Ecoe Editores, 2002. p. 1-8.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Ferreira JL, Espina AL, Barrios FA, Mavarιz MG. Conservación de las estructuras orales y faciales del cadαver quemado. Ciencia Odontológica 2005;2:58-65.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Andersen L, Juhl M, Solheim T, Borrman H. Odontological identification of fire victims - potentialities and limitations. Int J Leg Med 1995;107:229-2.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Myers SL, Williams JM, Hodges JS. Effects of extreme heat on teeth with implications for histologic processing. J Forensic Sci 1999;44:805-9.   Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Delattre VF. Burned beyond recognition: Systematic approach to the dental identification of charred human remains. J Forensic Sci 2000;45:589-96.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Sweet D. Por que es necesario un odontólogo para la identificación? In: Fixot RH, editor. Clνnicas odontológicas de Norteamιrica: odontologνa forense volumen 2. Mιxico: McGraw-Hill Interamericana; 2001. p. 245-57.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Marνn L, Moreno F. Odontologνa forense: Identificación odontológica, reporte de casos. Revista Estomatologνa 2003;11:41-9.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Marνn L, Moreno F. Odontologνa forense: Identificación odontológica de individuos quemados, reporte de dos casos. Revista Estomatologνa 2004;12:57-70.  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Merlati G, Savio C, Danesino P, Fassina G, Menghini P. Further Study of restored and unrestored teeth subjected to high temperatures. J Forensic Odontostomatol 2004;22:17-24.  Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Rφtzscher K, Grundmann C, Benthaus S. The effects of high temperatures on human teeth and dentures. Int Poster J Dent Oral Med 2004;6:213.  Back to cited text no. 11    
12.Mazza A, Merlati G, Savio C, Fassina G, Menghini P, Danesino P. Observations on dental structures when placed in contact with acids: Experimental studies to aid identification processes. J Forensic Sci 2005;50:406-10.  Back to cited text no. 12    
13.Taylor P, Wilson M, Lyons T. Forensic odontology lessons: Multishooting incident at Port Arthur, Tasmania. Forensic Sci Int 2002;130:174-82.  Back to cited text no. 13    
14.Norrlander AL. Burned and incinerated remains. In: Bowers CM, editor Manual of Forensic Odontology. Colorado Springs: American Society of Forensic Odontology, 1997. p. 16-18.  Back to cited text no. 14    
15.Ferreira JL, Espina AL, Barrios FA. La odontologνa forense en la identificación de las vνctimas de la masacre de la cαrcel de Sabaneta (Venezuela). Rev Esp Med Leg 1998;22:50-6.  Back to cited text no. 15    
16.Sweet D, Hildebrand DP, Phillips D. Identification of a skeleton using DNA from teeth and PAP smear. J Forens Sci 1999;14:630.  Back to cited text no. 16    
17.Williams D, Lewis M, Franzen T, Lissett V, Adams C, Whittaker D, et al . Determination by PCR analysis of DNA extracted from incinerated, deciduous teeth. Sci Justice J Forensic Sci Soc 2004; 44: 89-94.   Back to cited text no. 17    
18.Urbani C, Lastrucci RD, Kramer B. The effect of temperature on sex determination using DNA-PCR analysis of dental pulp. J Forensic Odontostomatol 1999;17:35-9.   Back to cited text no. 18    
19.Endris R, Berrsche R. Color change in dental tissue as a sign of thermal damage. Z Rechtsmed 1985;94:109-20.  Back to cited text no. 19    
20.Muller M, Berytrand MF, Quatrehomme G, Bolla M, Rocca JP. Macroscopic and microscopic aspects of incinerated teeth. J Forensic Odontostomatol 1998;16:17.  Back to cited text no. 20    
21.Wilson DF, Massey W. Scanning electron microscopy of incinerated teeth. Am J Forensic Med Patol 1987;8:32-8.  Back to cited text no. 21    
22.Robinson FG, Rueggeberg FA, Lockwood PE. Thermal stability of direct dental esthetic restorative materials at elevated temperatures. J Forensic Sci 1998;43:1163-7.  Back to cited text no. 22    
23.Bose RS, Mohan B, Lakshminarayanan L. Effects of elevated temperatures on various restorative materials: An in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res 2005;16:56-60.  Back to cited text no. 23  [PUBMED]  
24.Merlati G, Danesino P, Savio C, Fassina G, Osculati A, Menghini P. Observations of dental prostheses and restorations subjected to high temperatures: Experimental studies to aid identification processes. J Forensic Odontostomatol 2002;20:17-24.  Back to cited text no. 24    
25.Savio C, Merlati G, Danesino P, Fassina G, Menghini P. Radiographic evaluation of teeth subjected to high temperatures: Experimental study to aid identification processes. Forensic Sci Int 2006;158:108-16.  Back to cited text no. 25    
26.Ministerio de la Protección Social. Resolución por la cual se establecen las normas cientνficas, tιcnicas y administrativas para la investigación en salud. Resolución 008430/1993 de 4 de Octubre. Available from: [accessed in 2006 Oct].  Back to cited text no. 26    
27.Asociación Mιdica Mundial. Principios ιticos para las investigaciones mιdicas en seres humanos, Declaración de Helsinki. Finlandia, junio 1964. Available from: [accessed in 2005 Jan].  Back to cited text no. 27    
28.International Organization of Standardization. Dental materials: Testing of adhesion to tooth structure. ISO/TS 11405: 2003.  Back to cited text no. 28    
29.Kerl B, Prost E. Cobre. In: Stohmann F, editor. Gran enciclopedia de quνmica industrial Tomo X. Primera edición. Barcelona: F. Soix, 1956. p. 67-352.  Back to cited text no. 29    
30.Mrowec S, Stokosa A. Oxidation of copper at high temperatures. Oxidat Metals 1971;3:291-311.  Back to cited text no. 30    
31.Kerl B, Forbeck F. Mercurio. In: Stohmann F, editor. Gran enciclopedia de quνmica industrial Tomo XI. Primera edición. Barcelona: F. Sois, 1956. p. 68-155.  Back to cited text no. 31    


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12], [Figure 13]

This article has been cited by
1 Anlisis mediante radiografa convencional de los tejidos dentales y periodontales de cerdo (Sus domesticus) sometidos a altas temperaturas
Vernica Parra,Nathalia Correa,Sebastin Medina,Estefana Cullar,Adriana Herrera,Freddy Moreno
Revista Odontolgica Mexicana. 2015; 19(2): 89
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Materials and Me...
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded1110    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal